Determination of Some Trace Elements in Air Samples from the Study Environment of Alasala National Colleges and Study of Irradiated Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) Film: Electrical Properties and Determination of Some Trace Elements

  • Hassan Aldagham Alasala National Colleges, Dammam, PO. BOX 12666 Dammam code 31483, Saudi Arabia
  • Ahmad Aljishi Alasala National Colleges, Dammam, PO. BOX 12666 Dammam code 31483, Saudi Arabia
  • Mustafa Talag Alasala National Colleges, Dammam, PO. BOX 12666 Dammam code 31483, Saudi Arabia
  • Mohana Attia Alasala National Colleges, Dammam, PO. BOX 12666 Dammam code 31483, Saudi Arabia
Keywords: Alasala National Colleges, Enrichment factor, Trace elements, PVA, XRF, Electrical conductivity, Irradiation, Ion/Electron beam.


This study included two objectives, firstly determination of some trace elements in air samples from the study environment of Alasala National Colleges and secondly study of Irradiated Poly (vinyl alcohol) Film: Electrical Properties and Determination of Some Trace Elements, in the same Environment. The investigate the level of trace elements including Lead [Pb], Copper [Cu], Zinc [Zn] in air samples collected from Alasala National Colleges in Dammam, KSA. The samples were analyzed by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). The enrichment factors relative to average soil and crustal rock were done of these trace elements to predict the possible sources of these elements in air. The study revealed that the analysis that is scholarly is wholly free from Pb. The ratio that is average of Zn is 0.0006 and Cu is 0.0003 ng/m3. Also the determination of some trace elements by thin film x-ray fluorescence and study of electrical properties of Poly (vinyl alcohol) using ion/electron beam. After preparing of the PVA films the trace elements are determined on thin-film samples by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry.  The limits of detection on the thin film are 0.05-0.7 μg, depending on the element being measured. This study reports on the effect of nitrogen and electron beam irradiation on the electrical properties of films. Films of 3 mm were exposed to a charged (ion/electron) beam for different treatment times; the beam was produced from a dual beam source using nitrogen gas with the other ion/electron source parameters optimized. The real () and imaginary ( ) parts of the dielectric constant decreased with frequency for all irradiated and non-irradiated samples.The AC conductivity showed an increase with frequency for all samples under the influence of both ion and electron irradiation for different times.


[1] Young, Patricia A. Instructional Design Frameworks and Intercultural Models. Information Sciences References, 2009, p161.
[2] Arthur Stern. Air Pollution. Academic Press 1978. p250.
[3]. Nyle C. Brady., The Nature and Properties of soil, 8th ed. USA (1974).
[4]. Paul B Tchounwou, Clement G Yedjou, Anita K Patlolla, and Dwayne J Sutton. “Heavy Metals Toxicity and the Environment”. Molecular, Clinical and Environmental Toxicology.101. pp 133-164. 2012.
[5]. Adrian McDonald. A perspective of environmental pollution. Cambridge University Press 1981. P 381.
[6]. Allen, Stewart E. “Chemical analysis of ecological materials”. Oxford, England: Blackwell Scientific, 1974. P 95.
[7]. Lenntech BV. “Heavy Metals”. 2018.
[8]. Brown, H. J. M., “In Environmental Chemistry of the Element”. Academic, Press. London 1979. p 150.
[9]. Manfred L. Hallensleben "Polyvinyl Compounds, Others". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2000, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.
[10]. M. Ramakrishna Murthy, and E. Venkateshwar Rao. “Ion-beam modifications of the surface morphology and conductivity in some polymer thin films”. Bull. Mater. Sci. 25, pp 403–406. 2002.
[11]. A. A. El-Saftawy, A. Elfalaky, M. S. Ragheb, and S. G. Zakhary. “Electron beam induced surface modifications of PET film”. Radiation Phys. Chem. 102, pp 96 – 102. 2014.
[12]. Mohammed Ahmed Ali Omer, Emadeldin AbdeljabarAli Bashir. “Synthesis of polyvinyl alcohol and cuprous oxide (PVA/Cu2O) films for radiation detection and personal dosimeter based on optical properties”. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences. 11. Pages 237-241. 2018.
[13]. S. S. Ata-Allah and M. Kaiser, J. Alloys Compounds 471, 303 (2009). http://10.1016/j.jallcom.2008.03.117
[14]. R. Isabey, E. Duverger, C. Darraud-Taupiac, V. Binsangou, L. Makovicka, J.L. Decossas, J.C. Vareille. “Theoretical and experimental study of the CR-39 behavior under electron beam”. Radiation Measurements. 31. Pages 85-88. 1999.
[15]. A. Ahmed. “Synthesis and Physical characterization of nano-scale materials containing iron
Methods: Mossbauer Spectroscopy, X-Ray Powder Diffraction, SEM-EDS”. Ph.D. Thesis. Egypt. Al-Azhar University Department of Physics .2011.
[16]. M. M. Abdelrahman and F. W. Abdelsalam. “Modified Saddle Field Ion Source Using a Ring Focusing Electrode”. Journal of Nuclear and Particle Physics. 2, pp 26 – 30. 2012.
[17]. Abdo Mohd Meftah, Elham Gharibshahi, Nayereh Soltani, W. Mahmooud Mat Yunus and Elias Saion. “Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of PVA/PANI/Nickel Nanocomposites Synthesized by Gamma Radiolytic Method”. Polymers. 6. pp 2435-2450. 2014.
[18]. M. A. Addo, E.O. Darko, C. Gordon, B. J. B. Nyarko, J. K. Gbadage, E. “Evaluation of Heavy Metals Contamination of Soil and Vegetation in the Vicinity of a Cement Factory in the Volta Region, Ghana” International Journal of Science and Technology, 2. P :40-50. 2012.
[19]. A. Maher Wahba and M. Bakr Mohamed. “Structural, magnetic, and dielectric properties of Nanocrystalline Cr-substituted Co0.8Ni0.2Fe2O4 ferrite”. Ceramics International. 40. pp 6127-6135. 2014.
[20]. Moustafa Mohamed Abdelrahman, Mukit Osman, A. Hashhash. “Electrical properties of irradiated PVA film by using ion/electron beam”. Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics. 2016. 023G01. 2016.