Failure of Slopes and Embankments Under Static and Seismic Loading
Keywords:slope, embankment, failure, seismic action, tolerable movements, vulnerability curves, simulation, random fields, L.A.S. algorithm, fluctuations, permanent seismic displacements.
The stability of slopes and embankments under the influence of static and seismic loads has been the subject of study for many researchers. This paper presents the mechanisms and causes of landslides as well as the forms of failure of slopes and embankments under static and seismic loading, with examples of failures from both Greek and international space. There is also mention to measures to protect and stabilize landslides, categories of slope stability analysis, and methods of seismic impact analysis. What follows is the determination of tolerable movements based on the caused damage on natural slopes, dams and embankments and an attempt is made to connect them with the vulnerability curves that are one of the key elements of stochastic seismic hazard. Particular importance is given to the statistical parameters of the mechanical characteristics of the sloping soil mass and to the simulation of random fields necessary for solving complex geotechnical works. Finally, we compare the simulation and description of random fields and the L.A.S. method is observed to be the most accurate of all simulation methods. The L.A.S. algorithm in conjunction with finite difference models can demonstrate the large fluctuations in the factor of safety values and the permanent seismic displacements of the slopes under the effect of seismic charges whose time histories are known.
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