Eco-City as Approach for Sustainable Development

  • Moataz Moustafa Saad Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Egypt
  • Mohamed AbdelAll Ibrahim Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Egypt
  • Zeyad M. El Sayad Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Egypt
Keywords: Eco-City, Sustainable City, Sustainable Development, Planning Eco-City.


Eco-City is an essential approach for create sustainable development for the time being .The development aspects of Eco-City must be achieved, and it is one of the most effective way to proceed sustainable development of city. Sustainable development is major to improve the quality of life of the citizens and to reduce the effect of cities upon resources outside the urban context. Eco-cities enhance the comfort of citizens and society through integrated urban planning and management that fully harnesses the benefits of ecological systems. Also Eco-City serves as a fundamental catalyst for change, improving environmental quality of the natural and built environments for future generations, and upgrading conditions for sustainable development, the current situation of environmental problems is more serious than we think. Thus, it is very important for us to turn our eyes to the environment and to find out a positive way to live with nature .Therefore, the paper will present analysis for 4 Eco-City pioneer projects in Europe and Asia and then we will get the main features of those Eco- City projects based on a result of analysis.


[1] Xiangsheng Dou. Enterprise zone and industrialization, urbanization and development of regional economic for China. Forum on Science and Technology in China 2009; 164(12): 79-83.
[2] Roberto Camagni, Roberta Capello, Peter Nijkamp. Towards sustainable city policy: an economy-environment technology nexus, Ecological Economics 1998; 24: 103-118.
[3] Platt, Rutherford H. Toward ecological cities. Environment 2004; 46(5): 10-27.
[4] Bulkeley, Harriet, and Michele Betsill. 2005. Rethinking Sustainable Cities: Multilevel governance and the ‘urban’ politics of climate change. Environmental Politics 14: 42-63.
[5] Rotmans, Jan, Marjolein van Asselt, and Pier Vellinga. 2000. Assessment methodologies for urban infrastructure: An integrated planning tool for sustainable cities. Environmental Impact Assessment review 20: 265 – 276.
[6] Nam, Taewoo, and Theresa A. Pardo. 2011. Conceptualizing Smart City with Dimensions of
Technology, People, and Institutions. Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research. f (accessed on January 17, 2013).
[7] Jabareen, Yosef Rafeq. 2006. Sustainable Urban Forms: Their Typologies, Models, and
Concepts. Journal of Planning Education and Research 26: 38-52.
[8] Schatz, Gerald. 2007. Smart City: how much city can we endure? http://www.alpbachtechnologyforum. com/fileadmin/user_upload/Alpbach/2011 /Arbeitskreise_7- 12___SV/Abstract_Schatzx.pdf (accessed on January 6, 2013).
[9] Murray, Art, Mark Minevich and Azamat Abdoullaev. 2011. Being Smart and Smart Cities. The Future of the Future October 2011: 20-23.
[10] Howard E., 1902, Garden City of To-Morrow, Faber and Faber, London.
[11] Wang L., Wu H. & Song H., 2002, A framework of integrating digital city and eco-city. School of Business, Hubei University, Wuhan, China.
[12] Engwicht D., 1992, Towards an Eco-City: Calming the Traffic, Envirobook, Sydney.
[13] Engwicht D., 1993, Reclaiming our Cities and Towns: Better Living with Less Traffic, New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, BC.
[14] Alusi, A., Eccles, R. G., Edmondson, A. C. and Zuzul, T., 2011. Sustainable Cities: Oxymoron or the Shape of the Future.
[15] San Francisco Eco-City Declaration, 2008. Eco-City Media (blog), retrieved from:
[16] Philine Gaffron, Gé Huismans, Franz Skala, “Ecocity: A better place to live”, Deliverable of the Project Eco-City ‘Urban Development towards Appropriate Structures for Sustainable Transport’ (2002 - 2005).
[17] World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), Our Common Future. Oxford University Press, 1987: p. 43.
[18] H. Daly, and J. Cobb, For the Common Good: Redirecting the Economy toward Community, the Environment and a Sustainable Future. Beacon Press: Boston, MA, USA, 1989.
[19] L. Lee, “Sustainability: Living within One’s Own Ecological Means,” Sustainability, vol. 1, pp. 1412- 1430, 2009.
[20] W.M. Adams, “The future of sustainability: re-thinking environment and development in the twenty-first century,” Report of the IUCN Renowned Thinkers Meeting, Gland, Switzerland, 29-31 January 2006.
[21] L. Todd, “Well Measured Developing Indicators for Comprehensive and Sustainable Transport Planning,” Victoria Transport Policy Institute, 4 February 2011.
[22] H. May, “Sustainable Urban Development and Chinese Eco-City: Concepts, Strategies, Policies and Assessments.” Fridtjof Nansen Institute (FNI) Report, 2009.
[23] R. Register, Ecocity Berkeley: Building Cities For a Healthy Future. Berkeley, California: North atlantic books, 1987.
[24] Ecocity Builders, Ecocity Builders: 2009/2010 Annual Report. Oakland, California: Ecocity Builders, 2010.
[25] Lein, J., (2003). Integrated environmental planning, Blackwell Science, Oxford.
[26] Olmsted, F., (2013). The Papers of Frederick Law Olmsted: The Early Boston Years, 1882–1890, JHU Press, New York.
[27] Shu-Yang, F.; Freedman, B.; Cote, R., (2004). Principles and practices of ecological design, Environ. Rev., 12(1): 97-112
[28] Ahern, J., (2013). Urban landscape sustainability and resilience: the promise and challenges of integrating ecology with urban planning and design, Landscape Ecol., 28(6): 1203-1212
[29] Steiner, F., (2000). The living landscape: An ecological approach to landscape planning, McGraw Hill, New York.
[30] Grimm, Nancy B., J. Morgan Grove, Pickett, Steward T. A., Redman Charles L. Integrated approaches to long-term studies of urban ecological systems, Bioscience 2000; 50(7): 571-584.
[31] Miguel Ángel Olalla-Tárraga. A conceptual framework to assess sustainability in urban ecological systems, International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 2006; 13: 1-15.
[32] Ekhart, Hahn. Towards ecological urban restructuring: A challenging new eco-cultural approach, Ekistics 2002; 69: 412-414.
[33] Yigitcanlar T., 2009, Ubiquitous eco-cities: a new sustainable city form? Paper presented at the Urban Design Seminar, Gold Coast City Council, Gold Coast, Australia.
[34] Roseland M., 1997, Dimensions of the eco-city, Cities 14(4): 197-202.
[35] Joss S, Tomozeiu D and Cowley R, 2011. Eco-City Profile: Eco-cities A Global Survey 2011, University of Westminister.
[36] Newnan P and Jennings I, Cities as Sustainable Ecosystems, 2008, Island Press.
[37] Rosemann, J. (2007) Permacity, Barcelona.
[38] T. Mezher et, all. , Building Eco-Cities of the Future: The Example of Masdar City, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, Smart Center, Abu Dhabi, UAE, Int. J. of Thermal & Environmental Engineering,2016
[39] Tsinghua University Institute of Urban planning and Design, “Mater plan for Caofeidian Eco-city (2008-2020)”, 2008.
[40] Ahlgren, M. & Ding, L. (2009) the public space, water system and green structure of Caofeidian Eco‐city. World Architecture, 56‐65.
[41] Axelsson, K., C. Delefors & P. Söderström (2001), Hammarby Sjöstad – en kvalitativ studie av människors faktiska miljöbeteende och dess orsaker. Rapport december 2001. Renhållningsförvaltningen: Stockholm.
[42] Western Harbour, Bo01, Sustainable-City-Development/Bo01---Western Harbour. Html