Comparative Analysis of Russian Hybrid Methods in Ukraine and Syria Crisis
Hybrid Warfare represents a new and the most effective military strategy in 21th Century. Although it is the most common strategy, it is very difficult to conceptualize. National warfare understandings of each state seem to be the main reason of emerging diversity in hybrid warfare definitions. Russia is one of the states which use hybrid warfare as a military strategy. Ukraine and Syria Crisis are the cases that Russia demonstrate its hybrid warfare understandings effectively. This article mainly explores Russian hybrid warfare capabilities by comparing Russian hybrid methods used in both crises. This article also aims to contribute to the literature of hybrid warfare theories.
J. F. Reuben, “Russia’s hybrid war in Ukraine is working”, IHS Jane’s Defence Weekly, 26 February 2015, p.25. ; John Schindler, ‘We’re Entering the Age of Special War’, Business Insider, 25 September 2013, p.14
Sun Tzu on the Art of War, (trans. Lionel Giles), Allandale Online Publishing, Leicester 2000, Available: https://sites.ualberta.ca/~enoch/Readings/The_Art_Of_War.pdf, p.8 [Aug 15, 2016].
R. Williamson Murray – P. R. Mansoor, Hybrid Warfare: Fighting Complex Opponents from the Ancient World to the Present, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2012, p.3-4
T. McCulloh - Richard Johnson, “Hybrid Warfare”, JSOU Report, 13-4, August 2013, p.3
W. J. Nemeth, “Future War and Chechnya: A Case for Hybrid Warfare”, Naval Postgraduate School California, June 2002, s.54.
F. Hoffman, “On Not-So-New Warfare: Political Warfare vs. Hybrid Threats”, War on the Rocks (blog), 28 July 2014, Available: http://warontherocks.com/2014/07/on-not-so-new-warfare-political-warfare-vs hybrid-threats/ [Aug 05, 2016].
U.K. Ministry of Defence Development, Concepts and Doctrine Centre, “The Future Character of Conflict”, August 2015, Available:
https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/486301/20151 210 Archived_DCDC_FCOC.pdf. [Aug 21, 2016].
NATO. “A hybrid war – a hybrid response?”, July 2014, Available: http://www.nato.int/docu/review/2014/Russia-Ukraine-Nato-crisis/Russia-Ukraine-crisis- war/TR/index.htm. [Oct 21, 2016].
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Wales Summit, September 2014.
Inmoscowsshadows, The ‘Gerasimov Doctrine’ and Russian Non-Linear War, 06 July 2014, Available: https://inmoscowsshadows.wordpress.com/2014/07/06/the-gerasimov-doctrine-and-russian non-linear-war/ [Sep 04, 2016].
F. Hoffmann. “Conflict in the 21st Century: The Rise of Hybrid Wars”, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, Virginia, Dec 2007, p.8
The National Defense Strategy of the United States of America. March 2005, Available: http://archive.defense.gov/news/Mar2005/d20050318nds1.pdf, p.2 [Sep 11, 2016].
F. Nathan. “Strategic Competition and Resistance in the 21st Century: Irregular, Catastrophic, Traditional, and Hybrid Challenges in Context”, Strategic Studies Institute. May 2007, p.46.
J. J. McCuen, “Hybrid Wars”, Military Review, March-April 2008.
K. Abbott, “Understanding and Countering Hybrid Warfare: Next Steps for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization”, University of Ottawa, 23 March 2016, p.9
O. Bingöl, “Rusya’nın 21. Yüzyil Askeri Doktrini”, Merkez Strateji Enstitüsü, Bilgi Notu: 006, 29 November 2015.
K. Giles, “Russia’s ‘New’ Tools for Confronting the West Continuity and Innovation in Moscow’s Exercise of Power”, Russia and Eurasia, Programme, London: Chatham House, March 2016. p.8-46
M. Kofman - Matthew Rojansky, “Closer Look at Russia’s Hybrid War”, Kennan Cable, Wilson Center, No. 7, 2015, Available:
https://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/7KENNAN%20CABLEROJANSKY%20KOFMAN.p [Aug 11, 2016].
V. Gerasimov, “The Value of Science in Anticipating”, Military-Industrial Courier, 27 February 2013.
M. Seyfettin Erol - Şafak Oğuz, “Hybrid Warfare Studies and Russia’s Example in Crimea”, Akademik Bakış Volume:9 Number:17, Winter: 2015 p.269
C. Kasapoglu, “Russia ́s Renewed Military Thinking: Non-Linear Warfare and Reflexive Control”, Research Paper, Research Division, Nato Defence College, Rome –No. 121, November 2015, p.3-7
P. Eronen, Russian Hybrid Warfare: How to Confront a New Challenge to the West, June 2016, FDD PRESS, A division of the Foundation For Defense Of Democracies Washington, DC p.7-9
J. Miller, Pierre Vaux, Catherine A. Fitzpatrick, and Michael Weiss, “An Invasion by Any Other Name: The Kremlin’s Dirty War in Ukraine”, September 2015.
R. Andras, “Russia’s Hybrid War in Ukraine”, The Finnish Institute of International Affairs, 2015, p.28
R. Weitz, “Countering Russia’s Hybrid Threats”, Diplomaatia, November 2014.
S. Ennis. “How Russian TV Changed during Ukraine Crisis”, BBC News, 26 June 2015.
S., Oleg. “The Media War Behind the Ukraine Crisis”, The Moscow Times, 11 March 2014.
See further information available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denial-of-service_attack
T. Maurer and S. Janz, “The Russian-Ukraine Conflict: Cyber and Information Warfare in a Regional Context”, 18 October 2014.
D. Bolton, “Ukraine says major cyberattack on Kiev's Boryspil airport was launched from Russia”, The Independent, 18 January 2016.
T. Maurer, “Cyber Proxies and the Crisis in Ukraine” NATO CCD COE Publications, Talinn, 2015, p.81
A. Aslund, “Russia’s War on Ukraine’s Economy”, Project Syndicate, 9 July 2015.
A. Heistein - Vera Michlin Shapir, “Russia's Hybrid-Warfare Victory in Syria”, Nationalinterest, 19 May 2016.
A. H. Cordesman, “Russia in Syria: Hybrid Political Warfare”, CSIS, 23 September 2015.
B. Perry, “How NATO Can Disrupt Russia’s New Way of War”, Defenseone, 3 March 2016.
S. Blank, “Russia’s Information Wars In Syria And Ukraine”, Europeangeostrategy, Vol. 8, No. 15 (2016), 21 June 2016.
V. Spekter, “Russia Test its New Arsenal in Syria”, Lindro, 16 Dec 2015.