Effects of Drying Conditions on Fuel Property of Physic Nut (Jatropha Curcas)

  • Uthman, F. Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, Nigeria.
  • Onifade, T.B. Department of Agricultural Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.
Keywords: physic nut, drying kinetics, fuel property, temperature and air velocity.

Abstract

Physic nut (Jatropha curcas) is a bio-material that requires effective drying for easy extraction to produce oil and biofuel.  Temperature and air velocity had effect on drying characteristics of physic nut which determined its fuel property. The study of drying kinetics is necessary to give information about the time required for drying physic nut and the effects of temperature on the fuel property. The drying  kinetics of physic nut were investigated in a locally made electric crop dryer. The drying kinetics of physic nut was conducted at selected temperatures of 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 °C and air flow of 1.0 and 2.0 m/s. Proximate analysis carried out were volatile matter, ash and fixed carbon contents at selected temperatures of 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 °C. Temperature had significant effect on the fuel property of physic nut. The ash content increased, fixed carbon content and volatile matter content decreased as temperature increased from 40 to 80 oC. The drying time to achieve desired products’ quality was achieved and effects of temperature and air velocity on the fuel properties of physic nut have been established.

References

[1] J. F. Nicoleti, J. Telis-Romero, and V. R. N. Telis. “Air-drying of fresh and osmotically pretreatedpineapple slices: fixed air temperature versus fixed temperature drying kinetics”. Drying Technology, vol. 19, pp. 2175-2191, 2001.
[2] G.D. Singh, R. Sharma, A.S. Bawa, and D.C. Saxena. “Drying and rehydration characteristics of water chestnut (Trapa natans) as a function of drying air temperature”. Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 87 pp. 213-221, 2008.
[3] S. Lertworasirikul and Y. Tipsuwan. “Moisture content and water activity prediction of semi-finished cassava crackers from drying process with artificial neural network”. Journal of Food Engineering, 84: 65-74, 2008.
[4] T.B. Onifade. “Energy and Exergy Analyses of thin layer drying of physic nut”. PhD thesis in Dept. of Agricultural Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria, pp.1-253, 2015.
[5] A. Mohammadi, S. Rafiee, A. Keyhani and Z. Emam-Djomeh. “Estimation of Thin-layer Drying Characteristics of Kiwifruit with Use of Page’s Model”. American-Eurasian Journal Agric. & Environ. Science, vol. 3 (5): 802-805, 2008.
[6] S. Minaei and A. Motevali. “Effects of microwave and pretreatment on the energy and exergy utilization in thin layer drying of sour pomegranate arils”. Scientific Paper UDC 66.047:634.64, DOI:10.2298. Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly, vol. 18(1):63-73, 2012.
[7] O. V. Ekechukwu. “Experimental Studies of Integral type Natural-Circulation Solar energy”. Tropical Crop Dryers. Ph. D Thesis, Canfield Institute of Technology, United Kingdom, pp. 23-52, 1987.
[8] A. Sharma, C.R. Chen and N.V. Lan. “Solar-energy drying systems: a review,” Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, vol. 13:1185-1210, 2009.
[9] C.I. Ezekwe. “Introduction to solar drying”. Natural Centre for Energy Research and Development Journal, pp. 2-8, 1995.
[10] B.M. Amer, M.A. Morcos and M. A. Sabbah. “New method for the determination of drying rates of fig fruits depending on empirical data under conditions suiting solar drying”. Conference of New methods and technologies for Applications of Agricultural Products. The International Conference Institute of Agricultural Engineering LUA Raudondvaris, pp. 18-19, 2003.
[11] W.J. Coumans. “ Models for drying kinetics based on drying curves of slabs”. Chemical Engineering and Processing vol. 39, pp53-68, 2000.
[12] Jatropha World Team, JWT. Centre for Jatropha Promotion and Biodiesel, info@jatrophaworld.originfo@jatrophaworld.org. 2010
[13] W. M. J. Achten, L. Verchot, Y.J. Franken. E. Mathijs, V.P. Singh, R. Aerts and B. Muys. “Jatropha bio-diesel production and use”, Journal of Biomass and Bioenergy. vol. 32 (12) pp.1063-1084, 2008.
[14] S. Lele. (2007). The cultivation of Jatropha curcas Available online at: http://www.svlele com/jatropha plant.htm.
[15] A.J. Ruzainah, A.R. Abdul Rahman, Z.C. Mahmod and R. Vasudevan. “Proximate Analysis of Dragon Fruit (Hylecereus polyhizus)”. American Journal of Applied Sciences, vol. 6 (7) pp. 1341-1346, 2009.
[16] A.O.A. Meregini. “Some endangered plants producing edible fruits and seeds in Southeastern Nigeria”. Journal Production of Fruits, vol. 60 (3) pp. 211-220, 2005.
[17] M.C. Dike. “Proximate and phytochemical compositions of some rose plant species of southeastern Nigeria”. Global Journal of Agricultural Science, vol. 19 (2) pp. 104-116, 2009.
[18] A. Faizal, W.M.A. Wan Daud and J. N. Sahu. “Optimization and characterization studies on bio-oil production from palm shell by pyrolysis using response surface methodology”, Journal of Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 35, pp. 3604-3616, 2011.
[19] J. Folaranmi. “Design, Construction and Testing of Simple Solar Maize Dryer”. Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies vol.1 (13), pp.122-130, (2008).
[20] J. C. Ehiem, S. V. Irtwange and S.E. Obetta. “Design and Development of an Industrial Fruit and Vegetable Dryer”. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, vol. 1 (2) pp. 44-53, 2009.
[21] Boeing Guardian EnvironmentHailed as a miracle biofuel, Jatropha falls short of hype available at
http:www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/nov/13/travel and transport-biofuels, 2008.
[22] ASTM D5373-02. Standard Test Methods for Instruments Determination of Carbon, Hydrogen and Nitrogen in Laboratory Samples of coal and coke, ASTM International, West Conshocken, 18-19, 2003.
[23] H. Miezaee, T. Tavakkoli, S. Minaei and A. Rajaee. “Some physical properties kiwifruit (cv Hayward)”. In Proceedings of the 3rd National Congress on Agricultural Machinery, Shiraz, Iran, 2007.
[24] O. V. Ekechukwu. “Review of solar-energy drying systems I: an overview of drying principles and theory”. Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 40 pp. 593-613, 1999.
[25] S. Rodrigues and F. A. N Fernandes. “Dehydration of melons in a ternary system followed by air-drying”. Journal of Food Engineering, 80: 678-687, 2007.
[26] O.P. Fapetu. “Production of charcoal from Tropical Biomass for Industrial and Metallurgical Process”. Nigeria Journal of Engineering Management, vol. 1(2), pp. 34-37, 2000.
[27] I. C. O. Akendo, L. O. Gumbe and A. N. Gitau. “Dewatering and Drying characteristics of water hyancinth Petiole. Part II. Drying characteristics”. Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR Ejournal Manuscript FP 07, vol. 10 pp. 33-37, 2008.
[28] E. Akpinar, Y. Bicar and C. Yildiz. “Thin layer drying of red pepper”, Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 59 pp. 99-104, 2003.
[29] A. Belghit, M. Khoulina, and B.C. Boutaleb. “Experimental Study of Drying Kinetics by Forced Convection of Aromatic Plants”. Energy Conversion Management, vol. 44 (12) pp.1303-1321, 2000.
[30] K. O. Falade and E. S. Abbo. “Air-drying and rehydration characteristics of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruits”. Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 79 pp. 724-730, 2007.
[31] P. S. Madamba, R. H. Driscoll and K. A. Buckle. “The thin layer drying characteristics of garlic slices”. Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 29 pp. 75-97, 1996.
[32] S. Bellagha, E. Amami, A. Farhat, and N. Kechaou. “Drying kinetics and characteristic drying curve of lightly salted sardine (Sardinella aurita)”. Drying Technology, vol. 20 pp. 1527- 1538, 2002.
[33] A. Cihan, K. Kahveci, O. Hacıhafızog˘lu, and A.G.B. De Lima. “A diffusion based model for intermittent drying of rough rice”. Heat Mass Transfer, DOI 10.1007/s00231-007-0323, 2007.
[34] I. Doymaz. Drying kinetics of white mulberry. Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 61 pp.341-346, 2004a.
[35] V. T. Karathanos. “Determination of water content of dried fruits by drying kinetics”. Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 39 pp. 337-344, 1999.
[36] M.H. Nguyen and W. E. Price. “Air-drying of banana: Influence of experimental parameter slab thickness, banana maturity and harvesting season”. Journal of Food Engineering, 79 pp. 200-207, 2007.
[37] C.T. Akanbi, R.S. Adeyemi, A. Ojo. Drying characteristics and sorption of tomato Slices, Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 73 pp. 157-163, 2006.
[38] S. Methakhup, N. Chiewchan, and S. Devahastin. “Effects of drying methods and conditions on drying kinetics and quality of Indian gooseberry flake”. Journal of Swiss Society of Food Science and Technology, vol. 38 pp. 579-587, 2005.
[39] C. Nimmol, S. Devahastin, T. Swasdisevi and S. Soponronnari. “Drying of banana slices using combined low-pressure superheated steam and far-infrared radiation”. Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 81 pp. 624-633, 2007.
[40] I.E. Saeed, K. Sopian and A. Zainol. “Thin-Layer Drying of Roselle (I): Mathematical Modeling and Drying Experiments”. Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR E-journal. Manuscript FP 08 015. vol. 10, pp 1-25, 2008.
[41] R. Ahmad, N. Hamidin, and U. Ali. “Bio-oil Product from Non-catalytic and Catalytic Pyrolysis of Rice Straw”, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, vol. 7(5): pp. 61-65, 2013.
[42] M.J. Herrera, P. Siddhuraju, G. Francis, G. Davila-Ortiz, K. Becker. “Chemical composition, toxic/ antimetabolic constituents, and effects of different treatments on their levels, in four provenances of Jatropha curcas L. from Mexico”. Journal of Food Chemistry, Elsevier, vol. 96 pp. 80-89, 2006.
Published
2016-04-06
Section
Articles