GIS-Based Underground Water Quality Risk Mapping of Kaltungo L.G.A, Gombe State, Nigeria

Sunday Richard Thlakma, Murtala Muhammad Tukur, Musa Kulausa HENA, Madaki Lamis Abare, Adamu Muhammad K


The research aimed at identification and risk mapping of the concentration of physiochemical properties of some metal ions in the underground water in Kaltungo LGA of Gombe State with the aid of Geospatial Techniques. Water samples used comprises of all of the 40 wells and boreholes were sampled and two control points and out of that, wells constitute about 25 and 15 boreholes respectively. Also, ten metals ions which includes;  Alkalinity of the water, B.O.D, C.O.D, D.O, Chloride, Electric Conductivity, Fluoride,Nitrate, phosphate, Sulphate, T.Hard, were selected and analyzed in laboratory. DEM, Curvature, Watershed, Aspect, Slope and Hillshed were also used. The methods employed were both Laboratory and Geospatial techniques.  The result obtained from the lab was compared with WHO standards, imported in to ArcGIS 10.3 environment and interpolated and subsequent analysis were done using kringing methods and query. Based on the query from the geodatabase of the underground water, it was found that 60% out of the metal ions used in this study were not in conformity with the WHO standards for drinking water. Amongst these metals are; Electric Conductivity, Fluoride, Nitrate, Sulphate, T.Hard and T.Hard. It was also found that 97.5% of the wells and boreholes have higher concentration of Fluoride, 85% Sulphate, 75% Electric Conductivity and 55% Nitrate while 32.5% and 30% have lower concentration of T.Hard and Turbidity respectively. Again reveal that those metals with higher concentrations of physiochemical properties are found to be within lower elevation, moderately water table due to down slope movement of water.

Moreover, it was revealed that due to the convex profile curvature and watershed nature of the study area physiochemical of the water was accelerating to the lower slope towards the Northeast and Eastern part of the study area. Furthermore, it was found from the risk map that the vulnerability underground water risk area was the Northeast, central and Eastern part of Kaltungo. It was recommended that GIS techniques should be of paramount used in examine water related issues so as the results will served as a basis for decision support for WHO and others related organizations.


Physiochemical Parameters; Underground Water (wells and boreholes); Drinking Water; Geodatabas; Risk Zone; GIS.

Full Text:



H. Arslan. “Spatial and temporal mapping of groundwater salinity using ordinary kriging and indicator kriging”: The case of Bafra Plain, Turkey. Agric. Water Manag. (2012), 113, pp. 57–63.

C. S. Jang, S. K. Chen, Y. M. Kuo. “Applying indicator-based geostatistical approaches to determine potential zones of groundwater recharge based on borehole data”. Catena, 101, (2013), pp. 178–187.

M.H. Achour, A.E. Haroun, C.J. Schult, K.A.M. Gasem, “A new method to assess the environmental risk of a chemical process”, Chemical Engineering and Processing, vol. 44, issue 8, (2005), pp. 901-909.

T.H. Wen, N.H. Lin, C.C. King, M.D. Su, M.D. “Spatial mapping of temporal risk characteristics to improve environmental health risk identification: A case study of a dengue epidemic in Taiwan”, Science of the Total Environment, vol. 367 issue 2-3, 2006, pp. 631-640.

B. Shomar. “Groundwater contaminations and health perspectives in developing world case study: Gaza Strip”. Environ. Geochem. Health 33, (2011), pp. 189–202.

WHO and UNICEF. “Rapid Assessment of Drinking-Water Quality, A Handbook for Implementation”. Retrieved on October 5th, 2016 from: (2012), pp. 148.

A. Tamas, J. Meyer, H. Mosler.” Predictors of treated and untreated water consumption in rural Bolivia”. J. Appl. Social Psychol. 43, (2013), pp. 1394–1407.

Z. Shamsu-Deen. “Assessment of the impact of water supply and sanitation on health: a study in the Savelegu/Nantong district of the Northern Region,Ghana”. J. Environ. Earth Sci. 3 (3), 2013. Pp. 1–8.

I. A. Al-Khatib, H. A. Arafat. “Chemical and microbiological quality of desalinated water, groundwater and rain-fed cisterns in the Gaza Strip”, Palestine.Desalination 249, (2009), pp. 1165–1170.

S. Sunil, P. Kailash, S. Parag and S. Research . “GIS Based Groundwater Quality Mapping in Southern Part of Aurangabad City, Maharashtra, India”. International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Feb., 2016. Vol. 9, Issue 1, (2016), pp. 129-134

Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI). Using ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst”; ESRI: Redlands, CA, USA, (2003).

R. Caridad-Cancela, E. V. Vàzquez, S. R. Vieira, C. A. Abreu, A. P. Gonzàlez. “Assessing the spatial uncertainty of mapping trace elements in cultivated fields””. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 36, (2005), pp. 253–274.

C. Piccini, A. Marchetti, R. Farina, R. Francaviglia. “Application of indicator kriging to evaluate the probability of exceeding nitrate contamination thresholds.” Int. J. Environ. Res. 6, (2012), pp. 853–862

L. Jarup.” Health and environmental information systems for exposure and disease mapping and risk assessment.” Environmental Health Perspectives 112 (9), (2004), pp. 995-997.

J. D. Carter, W. Barber and E. A. Tait. “The Geology of parts of Adamawa, Bauchi and Borno Provinces in Northeastern Nigeria”. Geol. Surv. of Nig. Bull. No. 30., (1963).

WHO. “Guidelines for drinking water quality”. 4thed. World Health Organization, Geneva, (2011). pp. 219-229

American Public Health Association (APHA). “Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater” (22nd ed.). Washington, DC: Author, (2012).

World Health Organization.” Guidelines for drinkingwater quality.“(Vol. 1, 3rd ed.), (2006). Retrieved from http://www.

D. Hammer, M. Nicolas and D. Andrey. “Improved chromium determination in various food matrices using Dynamic Reaction Cell ICP-MS”. Atomic Spectroscopy, 26, 6, (2005), 203-208.

T. H. Y. Tebbutt. “Relationship between Natural Water Quality and Health.” Paris: UNESCO. (1998).


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Comments on this article

View all comments




About ASRJETS | Privacy PolicyTerms & Conditions | Contact Us | DisclaimerFAQs 

ASRJETS is published by (GSSRR).