Bacteriological Investigation of Sudanese Beef
Animals of every kind are in continual contact with microorganisms. Bacteria occur most abundantly in habitats where they find food, bacterial contamination affects human health, and the study will cater for investigation of other meat contaminants in cattle meat. This study is undertaken to fill the gap in this area. Three hundred and twenty four bacterial isolates belonging to twenty seven bacterial genera were recovered from 460 specimens from meat samples and rectal swaps from apparently healthy carcasses from two slaughter houses; Ghanawa- Khartoum (beef brought from all over the country) and West Al Gash (Kassala),that for microbial examination . Bacteria were isolated in the period from March, 2011 to June, 2013 involving four seasons. Isolation of bacteria was performed by conventional microbiological methods and identified according to the cultural and biochemical tests. Cambylobacters isolated in accordance with ISO 2006 method and particular attention was made to provide microaerophillic conditions at 42˚C. Statistical analysis of the obtained results showed a significant difference with respect to the seasons for the isolates but no significant difference was indicated among the different types of the carcasses parts from which the specimens were taken. This study explained a high level of bacterial contamination of beef carcasses without identification of the source of contamination. The least encountered isolates were Clostridium spp. and Streptobacillus spp. with prevailed at (00.74%). Although cambylobacters demonstrated a prevalence of 13.33.% in Summer, 2012 nevertheless, their presence of great concern as a zoonotic pathogen. Arcobacter cryaerophilus was isolated with a low prevalence however, it`s isolation is of great significance as this species is recently recognized as an emerging pathogen.
The study recommend that, highly strict measures should be applied to curtail the contamination levels or to lessen it to the minimum, development of methodologies to appropriate management by application of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system, and national survey for the identification of meat contaminants should be adopted and executed using both microbilogical culturing methods and molecular biology methods.
. Abdalla ,M. A., Suliman,S. E. ,Ahmed, D. E. and Bakhiet,A. O. (2009 ). Estimation of bacterial contamination of indigenous bovine carcasses in Khartoum (Sudan). African Journal of Microbiology Research Vol. 3(12) pp. 882-886.
. Ahamed, S. P., Lath, S., DeGabriele, G .J., Mathew, V.T.( 2010 ).Cerebral abscess caused by Aggregatibacter aphrophilus. Neurosciences (Riyadh). 15(1):40-42.
. Angen, B., Mutters, R., Dominique A., Caugant, A., Olsen, J. E. and Bisgaard, M., (1999). Taxonomic relationships of the [Pasteurella] haemolytica complex as evaluated by DNA-DNA hybridizations and 16s rRNA sequencing with proposal of Mannheimia haemolytica gen. nov., comb. nov., Mannheimia granulomatis comb. nov., Mannheimia glucosida spa nov., Mannheimia ruminalis spa nov. and Mannheimia varigena sp. Nova. Int. J. Syst. c Bacteriol., 49: 67-86
. Charles, M.A., Franz ,P. , Wilhelm H. ,Holzapfel , Michael ,E. and Stiles, (1999). Enterococci at the crossroads of food safety? International Journal of Food Microbiology 47 (1-2) , 1–24
. Charfreittag,O.,Collins,M.D.and Stackebrandt,E.(1988 ).Reclassification of Arachnia propionica as Propionibacterium propionicus comb. nov. Int J. Syst. Bacteriol. 38:354-357.
. Cohen, D. C. ; Stockdale, C. R. ; Doyle, P. T., (2006). Feeding an energy supplement with white clover silage improves rumen fermentation, metabolisable protein utilisation, and milk production in dairy cows. Aust. J. Agric. Res., 57 (4): 367-375
. Collins, F. M., (1996).Pasteurella, Yersinia, and Francisella; Chapter 29 in Medical Microbiology. 4th edition ed. Edit. Samuel Baron. University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, Texas.
. Cowan,S.T.,and Steel,K.J.(1999). Cowan and Steel,s Manual for the identification of medical bacteria. Edn.3(ed:G.I.Barrow and R.K.A.Feltham). United Kingdom .Cambridge university press.
. Dowd, S. E., Callaway, T. R., Wolcott, R. D. Sun, Y. McKeehan, Robert G Hagevoort, T. and Edrington, T. S., ( 2008 ). Evaluation of the bacterial diversity in the feces of cattle using 16S rDNA bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP). BMC. Microbiology 2008, 8:125-132
. Elizabeth, T. S. Houang, Y. W. Chu, [...], and A. F. B. Cheng (2001).Epidemiology and Infection Control Implications of Acinetobacter spp. in Hong Kong.J.Clin.Microbiol.:39(1):228-234.
. Eltigani O.M., Omer, M. O. Al- Ghamd, Ali Saad R. Alsubaie, Fadlelmula, A. (2013).The Effect of Seasonal Variation on the Hygienic Standard of Beef Carcasses in Al BahaRegion, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences Vol. 4(6) pp. 230-236.
. FAO, ( 1991). Guidelines for slaughtering meat cutting and further processing.
. FAO ,( 2000) . Manual on meat inspection for developing countries edited by Herenda, D., Chambers P.G., Ettriqui A., Seneviratna P.and da SilvaT.J.P. Chapter Three; specific diseases of cattle. Produced by: Agriculture and ConsumerProtection.http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/t0756e/t0756e03.htm
. Gallegos, A. M.;Pamer, E. G. ,and Glickman M. S. (2008). Infectious Diseases Service, Immunology Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10032. JEM vol. 205 no. 10 2359-2368.
. Gomez,K.A.and Gomez,A.A.(1984).Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research.John Willey and Sons. NewYork.
. Greenberg, D., Chiou, C.C, Famigilleti, R., Lee, T.C.and Yu, V.L. ( 2006). Problem pathogens: paediatric legionellosis--implications for improved diagnosis. Lancet Infect Dis. 6(8):529-535.
. Hennig, S. and Sunde, M., ( 2001 ). Resistance to antibiotics in the normal flora of animals. Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, NorwayVet. Res. 32 : 227–241
. Joshua, R., Linda L., Peggy J. Kyung ,Y. ,David, D.and David G.(2013).Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Enterococcus Species Isolated from Retail Meats. American Society for microbiology.Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79:23
. Krieg, N.R. and Hoffman, P.S. (1986). Microaerophily and oxygen toxicity. Annual Review of Microbiology 40, 107–130.
. Lau,R.,Magsood,S., Harte, D.,Caughley,B.,Deacon,R.(2013).Prevalence of Legionella strains in cooling Tower in NewZeland.J.Env. Health.75(6)82-89.
. Lehner, A., Schneck, C., Feierl, G., Pless, P., Deutz, A., Brandl, E. & Wagner, M.(2005). Epidemiologic application of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to an outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni in an Austrian youth centre. Epidemiology and Infection 125, 13–16.
. Luechtefeld, N.W., Cambre R.C.and Wang, W.L.L.(1981). Isolation of Campylobacterfetus subsp. jejuni from zoo animals. J. Am. Vet.Med. Assoc; 179: 1119-1122.
. Meerburg, B. G., Singleton, G. R. and Kijlstra, A.,( 2009). Rodent-borne diseases and their risks for public health. Critical Reviews in Microbiology; 35(3): 221–270
. Moschonas,G. D., Bolton,J. , McDowell, D. A., and Sheridan1,J. J.( 2011 ). Diversity of Culturable Psychrophilic and Psychrotrophic Anaerobic Bacteria Isolated from Beef Abattoirs and Their Environments. Applied and environmental microbiology, 77(13): 4280–4284.
. Nachmankin, I.; Szymanski, C.M. and Blaser J (editors) (2008). Campylobacter (3rd ed.). ASM Press. pp. 3–25. ISBN 9781555814373.
. Nel, S., Lues ,J.F.R .,Buys, E.M and Venter P.,(2004).Bacterial populations associated with meat from the deboning room of a high throughput red meat abattoir.Meat Science,66(3):667–674
. Nozha Cohen, N., Ennaji, H., Hassa, M. and Karib, H.(( 2006). The bacterial quality of red meat and offal in Casablanca (Morocco). Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 50: 557 – 562.
. Rahkio, T.M.,and Korkeala H.J.(1997).Airborne bacteria and carcass contamination in slaughterhouses Department of Food and Environmental Hygiene, University of Helsinki, Finland.J .Food Prot.;60(1):38-42.
. Rycroft, A. N. and Garside, L.H. ( 2000 ). Actinobacillus species and their role in animal disease. Veterinary Bacteriology Group, Department of Pathology and Infectious Diseases, Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, AL9 7TA, UK.. Vet J. Jan;159(1):18-36.http://www .firstname.lastname@example.org
. Scullion ,R., Harrington ,C.S., Madden, R.H. ( 2006 ).Prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in raw milk and retail raw meats in Northern Ireland.Food Science Department, The Queen's University of Belfast, Northern Ireland. J. Food Prot.;69(8):1986-1990.
. Sood,N. K., Sandhu, B. S, Gupta ,K. Narang, D., Vasudeva, K.and Singh ,N.D. (2012 ). Mesenteric caseous lymphadenitis in a cow calf caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis: a case report.College of Veterinary Science, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.Veterinarni Medicina, 57, (7): 371–375.
. Tassew, H., A. Abdissa, G. Beyene and S. Gebre-Selassie (2010). Microbial flora and food borne pathogens on minced meat and their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Ethiop J .Health Sci. 20 (3): 137-143.
. Tassew, L., Bercovici J, Pizzut-Serin S, Robe P, Tap J, Klopp C, Cantarel, B.L, Coutinho PM, Henrissat B, Leclerc M, Doré J, Monsan P, Remaud-Simeon M. and Potocki-Veronese G.(2010). Functional metagenomics to mine the human gut microbiome for dietary fiber catabolic enzymes.Université de Toulouse ,France. Nov;20(11):1605-12. doi: 10.1101/gr.108332.110.
. Taylor, D.N. (1992). Campylobacter infections in developing countries. In Campylobacter jejuni: Current Status and Future Trends ed. Nachamkin, I., Blaser, M.J. and Tompkins, L.S. pp. 20±30. Washington: American Society for Microbiology
. Tortora,G.J., Funke, B.R. and Case, C.L., ( 1989 ).Microbiology: An introduction, Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company Inc. Redwood City, CA, USA,.
. van Tiel, F. H., Slangen,B. F. ,Schouten,H. C. and Jacobs,J. A. (1995). Study of Stomatococcus mucilaginosus isolated in a hospital ward using phenotypic characterization. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 14:193–198.
. Verdier, I., Gayet-Ageron, C.Ploton,A. Taylor,P. Benito,Y. Freydiere, A. M. Chotel,F. Berard , J.Vanhems, P. and Vandenesch ,F. (2005). Contribution of a broad range polymerase chain reaction to the diagnosis of osteoarticular infections caused by Kingella kingae: description of twenty-four recent pediatric diagnoses. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 24692-696.
. Wang, W. L., Luechtefeld, N. W., Blaser, M. J., and Reller, L. B. 1982. Comparison of CampyPak II with standard 5% oxygen and candle jars for growth of Campylobacter jejuni from human feces. J. Clin. Microbiol., 16:291-294.
. Wetmore, P.W., Thiel, J.F. ,Herman, Y.F. and Hair.J.R. (1963). Comparison ofselected Actiobacillus species with a hemolytic variety of Actinobacillus from irradiated swine .J. infect. Dis .113.186.
. WHO. ( 2001 ). The increasing incidence of human campylobacteriosis. Report and proceedings of a WHO Consultation of Experts, Copenhagen, Denmark, 21–25 November 2000.
. Yeruham, I., Elad, D., Van-Ham, M., Shpigel, N. Y.and Perl, S.(1997 ).Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in Israeli cattle: clinical and epidemiological studies. Vet Rec.;140:423–427.
. Zhang, Y., Mao ,Y., Li,K., Dong,P. ,Liang,R. and Xin, L.( 2011 ). Models of Pseudomonas Growth Kinetics and Shelf Life in Chilled Longissimus dorsi Muscles of Beef. College of Food Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci.Vol. 24, No. 5 : 713 – 722.
- There are currently no refbacks.