A Comparative Study of Students’ Readiness on E-learning Education Between Indonesia and Myanmar

Mon Mon The, Tsuyoshi Usagawa


Due to the popularity of internet, e-learning is becoming more and more popular in not only developed countries but also developing countries. The integration of e-learning at the academic environment of the developing countries was not easy if compared to the developed countries. The inexperienced-universities which are trying to implement e-learning should learn how to overcome challenges and how to make academic strategies from the experienced-universities in e-learning. The purpose of this study was to measure e-learning readiness of two universities from ASEAN( the Association of Southeast Asian Nations) developing countries. In order to adopt e-learning education successfully into Myanmar’s traditional higher education, the findings of this study seek the possible drivers and barriers found in the students from Yangon Technological University (YTU), Myanmar and pointed out what kind of requirements should be upgraded in YTU by comparing Indonesia’s e-learning education. The results could provide YTU to get information that their students’ readiness was over the expected level, except in the learning environment and facilities related to YTU. Additionally, the readiness results from YTU in turn encourage Sam Ratulangi University(UNSRAT),Indonesia so that it could make a check-up on its current e-learning strategies and resources in line with the students’ requirements. The findings indicated that UNSRAT’s facilities were also under the expected level although it was running e-learning courses. Moreover, the findings from this study would be helpful for the universities from not only Indonesia and Myanmar but also other developing countries in order to ensure the effective adoption of e-learning.  


E-learning readiness; Indonesia; Myanmar; UNSRAT; YTU; Students.

Full Text:



A. Al-Azawei, P. Parslow and Karsten Lundqvist,“Barriers and Opportunities of E-Learning Implementation in Iraq: A Case of Public Universities,” International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, vol.17, no.5, September 2016.

B. E. Zamani and A. Esfijani, “Major Barriers for Participating in Online Teaching in Developing Countries from Iranian Faculty Members’ Perspectives,” Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, vol.32, no.3, pp. 38–49, 2016.

K. Kaur and Z. W. Abas, “An Assessment of E-learning Readiness at Open University Malaysia,” International Conference on Computers in Education, 2004.

A.A. Mosa, M. N. Mahrin, and R. Ibrrahim, “Technological Aspects of Technological Aspects of E-Learning Readiness in Higher Education: A Review of the Literature,” Computer and Information Science, vol. 9, no. 1, 2016.

List of ASEAN countries by GDP, 2017. [Online]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_ASEAN_countries_by_GDP [Accessed Jan.12, 2018].

International Human Development Indicators, 2017. [Online] http://hdr.undp.org/en/countries [Accessed Jan.12, 2018].

N. S. A.M. Kusumo, F.B. Kurniawan and N.I. Putri, “eLearning Obstacle Faced by Indonesian Students,” The Eighth International Conference on eLearning for Knowledge-Based Society, February 2012.

Khaing, S.S., Win, A., Aung, T.N., “SWOT Analysis of E-Learning Course Operation in Higher Education (Case Study: University of Technology, Yatanarpon Cyber City)”, Genetic and Evolutionary Computing, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing 388, Springer International Publishing Switzerland , 2016 .

Myanmar Education Quality Improvement Program(MY-EQIP), February 2017. http://dfat.gov.au/about-us/business-opportunities/tenders/Documents/revised-draft-design-myanmar-education-quality-improvement-program.pdf

P. P. T. Win, “An Overview of Higher Education Reform in Myanmar,” International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies ,Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges, University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-25 July 2015.

List of countries by number of Internet users, 2016.[Online]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_number_of_Internet_users [Accessed Jan.12, 2018].

Sam Ratulangi University(UNSRAT),2018. [Online] https://www.unsrat.ac.id/ [Accessed Jan.12, 2018].

S. Arifin , A.S. Aisjah , N. Gamayanti, T. Dhanardono ,Yaumar and Y.Bilfaqih , “The Design of E-Learning (share.its.ac.id) Course “Sistem Pengendalian Otomatis” to Support Effective Learning Outcomes,”The 1st International Seminar on Science and Technology, pp.D31089-D31090, August 2015.

S. Paturusi, Y. Chisaki and T. Usagawa , “ Assessing Lectures and Student’s Readiness for E-learning: A preliminary study at National University in North Sulawesi Indonesia,” GSTF Journal on Education(Jed), vol. 2, no.2, 2015.

Academic Data of Universitas SAM Ratulangi Manado, 2015. https://www.global.hokudai.ac.jp/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/1-B-4.-Sam-Ratulangi-University.pdf

K.M.Tint, “The Development of Engineering Education in Myanar”, 2016.

Yangon Technoolgoy Unviersity,2018. [Online] http://ytu.edu.mm/departments [Accessed Jan.12, 2018].

Asean Cyber University Project, “Article of Busan Digital University supports Myanmar’s e-Learning”, 2017.

University of Technology (Yatanapone Cyber City), UT-ACU Joint Workshop, 2016. [Online] http://utycc.moe-st.gov.mm/?p=812 [Accessed Jan.12, 2018].

Borotis, S. A. & Poulymenakou, A., “E-Learning Readiness Components: Key Issues to Consider Before Adopting e-Learning Interventions,” Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education,pp. 1622-1629, 2004.

Z. W. Abas, K. Kaur, & H.Harun, “E-learning readiness in Malaysia: A national report submitted to the Ministry of Energy, Water and Communications,” http://asiapacific-odl2.oum.edu.my/C33/F70.pdf

Shamaki and A., “Timothy, Influence of Learning Environment on Students’ Academic Achievement in Mathematics: A Case Study of Some Selected Secondary Schools in Yobe State – Nigeria,” Journal of Education and Practice, vol.6, no.34, 2015.

Kärnä, S., Julin, P. and Nenonen, S, “User Satisfaction on a University Campus by Students and Staff,” Intelligent Buildings International, vol. 5 , no. 1, pp. 69-82, 2013.

Price, I., Matzdorf, F., Smith, L. and Agahi, H, “The impact of facilities on student choice of university”, Facilities, vol. 21, no. 10, p. 212, 2003..

N. Srichanyachon, “Key Components of E-Learning Readiness,” 2010.


M. Haverila, “ Prior E-learning Experience and Perceived Learning Outcomes in an Undergraduate E-learning Course,” MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, vol. 7, no. 2, June 2011.

C.H. Aydin and D.Tasci, “Measuring Readiness for e-Learning: Reflections from an Emerging Country,” Educational Technology & Society, vol. 8, no. 4, 244-257, 2005.


  • There are currently no refbacks.




About ASRJETS | Privacy PolicyTerms & Conditions | Contact Us | DisclaimerFAQs 

ASRJETS is published by (GSSRR).