A compression of Kaplan Meier vs. Weighted Kaplan-Meier in Comparing Estimation of Heavy Censoring Data

Khalid Shoaib, Dr. Ahmed Hamdi, Dr. Al Taiyb Ahmed

Abstract


This study aimed to compare estimations of Kaplan-Meier (K-M) and Weighted Kaplan-Meier (W-K-M) as an alternative method to deal with the problem of heavy-censoring data for Children under-five years, whom do not reach the event of interest during the end period of the study. Usually, this kind of biostatistics study has been estimated based on K-M. In such situations survival probabilities, can be estimated for censored observation by K-M estimator. However, in case of heavy censoring these estimates are biased and overestimate the survival probabilities. For heavy censoring a new method was proposed (Bahrawar Jan, 2005) to estimate the survival probabilities by weighting the censored observations by non-censoring rate. But the main defect in this weighted method is that it gives zero weight to the last censored observation. The survival rates of the patients with standard error estimation based on K-M vs. W-K-M for 5 years shown in Table 3. In cases where censoring assumption is not made, and the study has many censored observations, estimations obtained from the K-M are biased and are estimated higher than its real amount. But W-K-M decreases bias of survival probabilities by providing appropriate weights and presents more accurate understanding. Weighted Kaplan-Meier was the suitable method to estimate the Survival Time of these patients, have determined after surgery at Jafar ibn Oaf Hospital for Children in Sudan form January 2012 to December 2016. The five years’ survival rate for these patients were evaluated based on K-M and W-K-M. A total of 245(22%) Children<5 years passed away by the end of the study and 853(78%) Children<5 years were censored. The median of survival time for these patients was 16 days.


Full Text:

PDF

References


. Kaplan, E.L and Meier, P (1958). “Non-parametric estimation from incomplete observations”. Journal of the American Statistical Association (53:457-481).

. Fleming A.F., Storey J., Molineaux L., Iroko E.A., Attai E.D. Abnormal haemoglobins in the Sudan savanna of Nigeria. I. Prevalence of haemoglobins and relationships between sickle cell trait, malaria and survival. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1979; 73:161–172. [PubMed].

. Powars D., Overturf G., Weiss J., Lee S., Chan L. Pneumococcal septicemia in children with sickle cell anemia. Changing trend of survival. JAMA. 1981; 245:1839–1842. [PubMed].

. Gunderson LL, Sosin H. “Adenocarcinoma of the stomach: areas of failure in a re-operation series (second or symptomatic look) clinicopathologic correlation and implications for adjuvant therapy.” Int J RadiatOncol BiolPhys 1982;8(1):1-11.

. Andreoli SP, Clark JH, McGuire WA, Bergstein JM (1986). Purine excretion during tumor lysis in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia receiving allopurinol: relationship to acute renal failure. J Pediatr 109:292–298 [PubMed].

. Wisbeck WA, Becker EM, Russell AH. Adenocarcinoma of the stomach: Autopsy observations with therapeutic implications for the radiation oncologist. Radiother Oncol 1986;7(1):13-8.

. Schaefer F, Marr J, Seidel C, Tilgen W, Scharer K. Assessment of gonadal maturation by evaluation of spermaturia. Arch Dis Child 1990; 65: 1205-1207.

. Breslow, N.E (1991). Introduction to Kaplan and Meier (1958) Nonparametric estimation from incomplete observations. In Breakthroughs in Statistics II.

. Young KD, Menegazzi JJ, Lewis RJ. Statistical methodology. Acad Emerg Med 1999;6(3):244-9.

. Utley M, Gallivan S, Young A, Cox N, Davies P, Dixey J, et al. Potential bias in Kaplan-Meier survival analysis applied to rheumatology drug studies. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2000; 39:1-2.

. Murray S. “Using Weighted Kaplan‐ Meier Statistics in Nonparametric Comparisons of Paired Censored Survival Outcomes”. Biometrics 2001;57(2):361-8.

. Thong-Ngam D, Tangkijvanich P, Mahachai V, et al. Current status of gastric cancer in Thai patients. J Med Assoc Thai 2001;84(4):475-82.

. Triboulet J, Fabre S, Castel B, et al. Adenocarcinomas of the distal esophagus and cardia: Surgical management. Cancer Radither 2001;5(Suppl 1):90s-7s.

. Schwarz RE, Zagala-Nevarez K. Recurrence patterns after radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer: prognostic factors and implications for postoperative adjuvant therapy. Ann Surg Oncol 2002;9(4):394-400.

. Wang CS, Hsieh CC, Chao TC, et al. Resectable gastric cancer: operative mortality and survival analysis. Chang Gung Med J 2002;25(4):216-27.

. Giashuddin MS, Kabir M. Breastfeeding duration in Bangladesh and factors associated with it. Indian J Comm Med 2003; 28: 34-38.

. Adachi Y, Tsuchihashi J, Shiraishi N, et al. AFP-producing gastric carcinoma: multivariate analysis of prognostic factors in 270 patients. Oncology 2003;65(2):95-101.

. Klein JP, Moeschberger ML, editor. Survival analysis: techniques for censored and truncated data. 1st ed. New York, NY, USA: Springer; 2003: p. 92-104.

. Bahrawar Jan. “Improved Inferences in the context of Survival/Failure Time.” Ph.D. Thesis University of Peshawar, Pakistan, (2004).

. Ding YB, Chen GY, Xia JG, et al. (2004) “Correlation of tumorpositive ratio and number of epigastric lymph nodes with prognosis of patients with surgically-removed gastric carcinoma”. World J Gastroenterol;10(2):182-5.

. Jan B. “Improved Inferences in the context of Survival/Failure Time [Dissertation]”. Peshawar Univ., Pakistan, 2004.

. Olowu WA, Adelusola KA (2004) Pediatric acute renal failure in southwestern Nigeria. Kidney Int 66:1541–1548 [PubMed].

. Anochie I, Eke F (2005) Acute renal failure in Nigerian children: Port Harcourt experience. Pediatr Nephrol 20:1610–1614 [PubMed]

. Jan B, Shah SWA, Shah S, et al. (2005). “Weighted Kaplan Meier estimation of survival function in heavy censoring”. Pak J Stat;21(1):55-63.

. Kim J, Kang DR, Nam CM. Log rank-type tests for comparing survival curves with interval-censored data. Comput Stat Data Analys 2006; 50: 3165- 3178.

. Sarin M, Dutta S, Narang A. Randomized controlled trial of compact fluorescent lamp versus standard phototherapy for the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Indian Pediatr 2006; 43: 583- 590.

. Belson M, Kingsley B, Holme A. Risk factors for acute leukemia in children: a review. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2007, 115:138–145.

. Shafiq M, Shah S, Alamgir M. Modified Weighted Kaplan-Meier Estimator. Pak J Stat Operat Res 2007;3(1):39-44.

. Huang ML. A weighted estimation method for survival function. App Math Sci 2008;2(16):753-62.

. Sadighi S, Mohagheghi M, Haddad P, et al. Life expectancy with perioperative chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. Tehran Univ Med J 2008;66(9):664-9.

. Aalen, Borgan , Gjessing H. Survival and Event History Analysis: A Process Point of View. Springer-Verlag; New York: 2009. Statistics for Biology and Health.

. Bernier PL, Stefanescu A, Samoukovic G. et al. The challenge of congenital heart disease worldwide: epidemiologic and demographic facts. Sem thorac cardiovasc surg. Pediatr Card Surg A. 2010; 13:26–34. [PubMed].

. Japanese Gastric Cancer Association. Japanese gastric cancer treatment guidelines 2010 (ver. 3). Gastric Cancer 2011;14(2):113-23.

. Ramadurai M, Ponnuraja C. Non-parametric estimation ofthe survival probability of children affected by TB meningitis. Int Refereed Res J 2011; II(2):216-27.

. Zare A, Mahmoodi M, Mohammad K, Zeraati H, Hosseini M, Naieni KH (2013). Survival Analysis of Patients with Gastric Cancer Undergoing Surgery at the Iran Cancer Institute: “A Method Based on Multi-State Models”. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention, 14(11):6369-73.

. Zare A, Mahmoodi M. (2013).” Modified Kaplan-Meier Estimator Based on Competing Risks for Heavy Censoring Data”. Int J Statist Med Res, 2(4):297-304.

. Zare A, Mahmoodi M, Mohammad K, Zeraati H, Hosseini M, Naieni KH. (2014).” Factors Affecting the Survival of Patients with Gastric Cancer Under gone Surgery at Iran Cancer Institute: Univariate and Multivariate Analyses”. Iranian Journal of Public Health,43(6):800-8.


Refbacks



 
  
 

 

  


About ASRJETS | Privacy PolicyTerms & Conditions | Contact Us | DisclaimerFAQs 

ASRJETS is published by (GSSRR).