A Comparison of Avian Diversity in Aquatic Environs of Kariba and the Zambezi River, Zimbabwe

Pioneer Taashwa Gamundani, Tafadzwa Moyo

Abstract


Avifauna communities in three sections of the Zambezi Valley were compared using species richness, Czekanowski Coeffient, Simpson’s Index and evenness. The study covered three sections of the Zambezi Valley namely: (i) Zambezi River upstream of Lake Kariba whose flow regime and habitats were presumed not altered by construction of Lake Kariba; (ii) section of Lake Kariba situated within the hinterlands of Kariba Town which was characterised by human settlements and high anthropogenic activities; and (iii) Zambezi River downstream of Lake Kariba whose flow regime and habitats were altered by construction of Lake Kariba. Surveys involved distance sampling point count method to establish avian composition, and species relative abundances in habitats. Czekanowski Coefficient showed low similarity (Czekanowski Coefficient < 45%) in avian community composition between sections of the Zambezi Valley. Aquatic avian species diversity was highest within the hinterlands of Kariba Town than in lotic habitats of the Zambezi River. Results showed significant differences (p<0.05; One way ANOVA) in species richness, species diversity and evenness among the three sections of the Zambezi Valley. Tukey’s pairwise comparisons showed significant differences (p<0.05) in species richness between sections of the Zambezi Valley. Tukey’s pairwise comparison tests also showed significant difference (p<0.05) in species diversity and evenness between lentic environs of Lake Kariba and lotic environs of the Zambezi River both upstream and downstream of the lake. However, Tukey’s pairwise comparison showed no significant difference (p>0.05) in species diversity and evenness between habitats upstream of the lake and habitats downstream of the lake. 

Results corroborated with the research hypothesis that avian communities within the three sections of the Zambezi Valley were significantly different from each other. These results could be a reflection of varying responses of avifauna to different habitat conditions in the different sections of the Zambezi Valley.


Keywords


avian diversity; Zambezi Valley; aquatic environs.

Full Text:

PDF

References


. T.L. Root, J.T. Price, K.R. Hall, S.H. Schneider, C. Rosenzweig and J.A. Pounds. “Fingerprints of global warming on wild animals and plants.” Nature, vol. 421, pp 57-60, January, 2003.

. S.R. Carpenter, P.L. Pingali, E.M. Bennett and M.B. Zurek. Ecosystems and human well-being: Scenarios, vol 2, Island Press, Washington DC, 2005, pp 64-67.

. H.C. Schaefer, W. Jetz and K. Bӧhning-Gaese. “Impact of climate change on migratory birds: community reassembly versus adaptation.” Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol 17 (1), pp 38-49, January, 2008.

. J. Timberlake. Biodiversity of the Zambezi Basin. Occasional Publications in Biodiversity No. 9. Biodiversity Foundation for Africa. Famona, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, 2000, pp 4-17.

. A.J. Tree. “Drought, Kariba and their effect on sandbank nesters of the Middle Zambezi.” Honeyguide, vol 34 (3) pp116-118, September, 1988.

. A.J. Tree. “The occurrence of the White-fronted Plover in Zimbabwe in the latter part of the 20th Century.” Honeyguide, vol 45 (1), pp 5-9, April, 1999.

. I.C. Riddle. “The changing status of the African Snipe in the Zambezi valley.” Honeyguide, vol 55 (1) pp 37-38, March 2009.

. B.G. Donnelly and A. Donnelly. “Birds of the Lake Kariba Basin, Zimbabwe.” Honeyguide vol 114/115, pp 27- 42, June/September 1983.

. M.P.S. Irwin. The birds of Zimbabwe. Quest Publishing (PVT) LTD, Harare, Zimbabwe. 1981, pp 11-78.

. R.F. du Toit. A preliminary assessment of the environmental implications of the proposed Mupata and Batoka hydro-electric schemes (Zambezi River, Zimbabwe). Natural Resources Board of Zimbabwe. Harare, Zimbabwe. 1982 pp 53-104.

. L.D.C. Fishpool and M.I. Evans, eds. Important Bird Areas in Africa and associated islands. Priority sites for conservation. Newbury and Cambridge, UK :Conservation Series, No. 11, 2001, pp 48-62.

. D. Zhang, L. Zhou and Y. Song. “Effects of water level fluctuations on temporal-spatial patterns of foraging activities by wintering Hooded Crane.” Avian Research vol 6, pp16-32, December, 2015.

. M.A. Colwell and O.W. Taft. “Waterbird communities in managed wetlands of varying water depths.” Waterbirds, vol 23 (1), pp 45-55, 2000.

. C.R. Isola, M.A. Colwell, O.W. Taft, and R.J. Safran. “Interspecific differences in habitat use of shorebirds and waterfowl foraging in managed wetlands of California’s San Joaquin Valley.” Waterbirds, vol 23 (2), pp 196-203, 2000.

. L. Cao, M. Barter, M.J. Zhao, H.X. Meng, and Y. Zhang. “A systematic scheme for monitoring waterbird populations at Shengjin Lake, China: Methodology and Preliminary Results.” China Birds, vol 2, pp1-17, 2011.

. J.L. DesGranges, J. Ingram, B. Drolet, J. Morin, C. Savage and D. Borcard. “Modelling wetland bird response to water level changes in Lake Ontario-St Lawrence River hydrosystem.” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol 113(1-3), pp 329-365, 2006.

. R.J. Safran, C.R., Isola, M.A. Colwell and O.E. Williams. “Benthic invertebrates at foraging locations of nine waterbird species in managed wetlands of the Northern San Joaquin Valley, California.” Wetlands, vol 17 (3), pp 407-415, 1997.

. M.P. Coppinger, G.D. Williams and G.L. Maclean. “Distribution and breeding biology of the African Skimmer on the Upper and Middle Zambezi River.” Ostrich, vol 59, pp 85-96, 1988.

. P.A. Wood and A.J. Tree. “Zambezi River survey October 199.” Honeyguide, vol 38 (2), pp 54-63, June 1992.

. P. Hockey, W.R.J. Dean, and P.G. Ryan. Roberts birds of Southern Africa. 7th Edition. Resolution Colour (Pty) Ltd, Cape Town, 2005 pp 21-89.

. G.L. Maclean. Roberts Birds of Southern Africa. John Voelcker Bird Book Fund, Cape Town, 1985, pp 48-79.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 
  
 

 

  


About ASRJETS | Privacy PolicyTerms & Conditions | Contact Us | DisclaimerFAQs 

ASRJETS is published by (GSSRR).