Mapping Groundwater Levels in Erbil Basin
Keywords:Erbil basin, Groundwater levels, Kriging, Inverse Distance Weighting IDW, GIS
In the Erbil Basin, which is located in Kurdistan Region at northern part of Iraq, several production wells have been selected for monthly monitoring of groundwater levels. The continuous depletion of groundwater levels has been recorded due to uncontrolled exploitation from both legal and illegal wells that poses a major problem in selected Basin, which is classified as arid and semi-arid regions. Accurate prediction of groundwater depth and elevation maps is crucial for the development of effective groundwater management strategies in the aquifer system of the area. Depth to groundwater measures for each of the 55 wells that distributed across the North, Central, and South sub-basins of Erbil, also mapped and compared with wells data that are recorded periodically by the Directorate of Erbil Groundwater. The methodology of this study is involved mapping groundwater tables for the measured wells in (2022) with surveying wells coordinates as field observations, and compare with data of groundwater tables in (2004) that archived by groundwater directorate. This study employs high-accuracy surveying techniques for the selected wells and utilizes geographic information systems (GIS) as a successful tool for mapping groundwater levels using both Kriging and IDW interpolation methods. The results are indicated successfully that groundwater tables have sudden drawdown during these (18) years, the main reasons behind that is drilling numerous wells without planning and lack of management of the wells system in the study area. Meanwhile, Erbil basin required better planning and management of groundwater resources. The study concludes that there is lack in groundwater management need to keep the sustainability of this vital resources, and observing monthly groundwater levels need to be connected with high accuracy sensor inside observation wells not manually measuring groundwater levels by damaged sounders. Unfortunately, there is no observation wells inside Erbil basin, the recorded data are within production wells that cannot represent as actual levels of the groundwater. The main objective of this study is to present the actual problems in the study area by create the maps of the groundwater table for the selected basin and to be used as a basic plan in developing strategies for effective management and planning of Erbil groundwater resources. And also employed to protect aquifer storage and prevent depletion of groundwater resources.
Stevanovic, Z. and Iurkiewicz, A., (2009). “Groundwater management in northern Iraq”. Hydrogeology journal, 17(2), p.367.
Varouchakis, E. A., Hristopulos, D. T., & Karatzas, G. P. (2012). “Improving kriging of groundwater level data using nonlinear normalizing transformations—a field application” Hydrological Sciences Journal, 57(7), 1404-1419. https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2012.717174
Al-Sudani, H. I. Z. (2019). 'Groundwater system of Dibdibba sandstone aquifer in south of Iraq'. Applied Water Science, 9(4). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-019-0952-6
Kumar, V. (2007). 'Optimal contour mapping of groundwater levels using universal kriging—a case study'. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 52(5), 1038-1050. https://doi.org/10.1623/hysj.52.5.1038
Theodossiou, N., & Latinopoulos, P. (2006). "Evaluation and optimisation of groundwater observation networks using the Kriging methodology". Environmental Modelling & Software, 21(7), 991-1000. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2005.05.001
Nikroo, L., Kompani-Zare, M., Sepaskhah, A. R., & Shamsi, S. R. (2010)."Groundwater depth and elevation interpolation by kriging methods in Mohr Basin of Fars province in Iran". Environ Monit Assess, 166(1-4), 387-407. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-009-1010-x
Machiwal, D., Mishra, A., Jha, M. K., Sharma, A., & Sisodia, S. S. (2012). "Modeling Short-Term Spatial and Temporal Variability of Groundwater Level Using Geostatistics and GIS". Natural Resources Research, 21(1), 117-136. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11053-011-9167-8
Younis, J. (2022). "Application of Remote Sensing and GIS to Mapping Groundwater Potential Zones of Khazir River Basin, Northern Iraq." Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science, 22(2), 209-230
Nanekely, M., Scholz, M. and Aziz, S.Q., (2017). "Towards sustainable management of groundwater: A case study of semi-arid area, Iraqi Kurdistan region". European Water, 57, pp.451-457.
Nanekely, M., Al-Faraj, F. and Scholz, M., (2019). "Estimating Groundwater Balance in the Presence of Climate Change Impact: A Case Study of Semi-Arid Area. Journal of Bioscience and Applied Research, 5(4), pp.437-455.
Mawlood, D.K., (2019). "Sustainability of Aquifer and Ground Water Condition in Erbil Basin/Iraq". Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 31(6)
Seeyan, S., (2020). Groundwater Flow Modeling for Qushtapa Plain Unconfined Aquifer in Southern Erbil Basin, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 8(03), p.116.
Jwan, S.M., Salah, F.S.A. and Shuokr, Q.A., (2021). "Assessment of sustainability and management for groundwater source in Erbil city". Recycling and Sustainable Development, 14(1), pp.41-50.
Al-Kakey, O., Othman, A. and Merkel, B., (2023). "Identifying potential sites for artificial groundwater recharge using GIS and AHP techniques: A case study of Erbil basin", Iraq. Kuwait Journal of Science, 50(1B).
Sui, D. Z., & Maggio, R. C. (1999). "Integrating GIS with hydrological modeling: practices, problems, and prospects. Computers", environment and urban systems, 23(1), 33-51.
Meng, Q., Liu, Z., & Borders, B. E. (2013). "Assessment of regression kriging for spatial interpolation–comparisons of seven GIS interpolation methods". Cartography and geographic information science, 40(1), 28-39.
(gisresources.com) Types of Interpolation - Advantages and Disadvantages (gisresources.com)
Dizayee, R. (2018). "Effects of Illegal Wells on Groundwater Level in the Central Sub-basin, Erbil Basin", Erbil, Kurdistan Region-Iraq. American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, 39(1), 244-249.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms.