Design and Fabrication of an Electromechanical Tester to Perform Two-dimensional Tensile Testing for Flexible Materials
Keywords:Encoder, Load cell, Synchronous stepper linear actuator, Two-dimensional tensile testing
There are many diseases that affect the arteries, especially those related to their elasticity and stiffness, and they can be guessed by estimating and calculating the modulus of elasticity. Hence, the accurate calculation of the elastic modulus leads to an accurate assessment of these diseases, especially in their early stages, which can contribute to the treatment of these diseases early. Most of the calculations used the one-dimensional (1D) modulus of elasticity. From a mechanical point of view, the stresses to which the artery is subjected are not one-dimensional, but three-dimensional. Therefore, estimating at least a two-dimensional (2D) modulus of elasticity will necessarily be more accurate. To the knowledge of researchers, there is a lack of published research on this subject, as well as a paucity of research that designed and implemented a 2D tensile testing device (2DTTD). However, there is no inspection of arterial flexibility and elasticity using the 2DTTD adequately studied before. Therefore, the aim of this work is to design and implement the 2DTTD to scrutinize if there is a difference between the 1D and 2D tensile examination. Different sized rectangular silicone specimens were manually fabricated; they were tested individually using the fabricated 2DTTD, which mainly comprises four actuators synchronously working with the same velocity and axial load force, two at each axis. As expected using the 2DTTD, the dimensions of the specimen remarkably influence the tensile testing results; the strain and stress rates and the modulus of elasticity were influenced. To validate the acquired 2D tensile testing results, the 1D tensile testing was performed using the same fabricated 2DTTD and compared to results gained using another tensile testing apparatus. During the verification process, the input data for models calibration were sufficiently and accurately provided. The results showed reasonable precision and reliability in calculations of the 2D stress and strain rates during the whole deformation process. Each mechanical device that has been used has the possibility to stretch and squeeze the sample and log the change in the specimen elongation.
The authors thought that the present experimental methodology was applied to the linear mechanical device successfully, where the encoder that is attached to tested samples was in the principal direction. The present method is used to measure the deformation in a manner that differs from the traditional digital image correlation method, which required a toolset that is more expensive, where it incorporates high-accuracy optical equipment.
Forouzandeh, Farzad, and Nasser Fatouraee. "Design and Fabrication of a Device to Mimic the Motion of the Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery." 2017 24th National and 2nd International Iranian Conference on Biomedical Engineering (ICBME). IEEE.?.
Kilner, Philip J., Siew Yen Ho, and Robert H. Anderson. "Cardiovascular cavities cast in silicone rubber as an adjunct to post-mortem examination of the heart." International journal of cardiology 22.1 (1989): 99-107.?
Wook, Jeong, et al. "Pulmonary veins in total anomalous pulmonary venous connection with obstruction: demonstration using silicone rubber casts." Pediatric pathology 11.5 (1991): 711-720.?
Wisam S. Hacham, Ashraf W. Khir," The speed, reflection and intensity of waves propagating in flexible tubes with aneurysm and stenosis: experimental investigation," Proceeding of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 233:10, 979-988, 2019.
Igor Sazonov, Ashraf W. Khir, Wisam S. Hacham et al," A novel method for non-invasively detecting the severity and location of aortic aneurysms," Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology, 16:4, 1225–1242, 2017.
Kaliyathan, Abitha Vayyaprontavida, et al. "Natural rubber and silicone rubber-based biomaterials." Fundamental Biomaterials: Polymers. Woodhead Publishing, 2018. 71-84.?.
Goodman, Steven L. "Sheep, pig, and human platelet–material interactions with model cardiovascular biomaterials." Journal of Biomedical Materials Research: An Official Journal of the Society for Biomaterials, the Japanese Society for Biomaterials, and the Australian Society for Biomaterials 45.3 (1999): 240-250.?
Eberhart, Robert C., Hsiao-Hwei Huo, and Kevin Nelson. "Cardiovascular materials." MRS Bulletin 16.9 (1991): 50-54.
Laks, Hillel, Graeme Hammond, and Alexander S. Geha. "Use of silicone rubber as a pericardial substitute to facilitate reoperation in cardiac surgery." The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 82.1 (1981): 88-92.?
Xu, Rui, et al. "Novel bilayer wound dressing composed of silicone rubber with particular micropores enhanced wound re-epithelialization and contraction." Biomaterials 40 (2015): 1-11.?
Johlitz, Michael, and Stefan Diebels. "Characterisation of a polymer using biaxial tension tests. Part I: Hyperelasticity." Archive of Applied Mechanics 81.10 (2011): 1333-1349.?
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms.