The Effects of Different Concentrations of Sliver Nanoparticles on the Kidneys of Male Albino Mice
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most abundantly used nanomaterials. Following exposure, AgNPs can accumulate in various organs including kidneys. This study aimed to determine the effects of increased doses of AgNPs on the kidneys of adult male albino mice. Sixty adult white male mice (20-25 g) were randomized divided equally into four groups (15 mice each): control group (saline solution), low-dose group (LD AgNPs) was intraperitoneal (i.p.) injected with 1 g/ kg, medium dose group (MD AgNPs) was i.p. injected with a dose of 2 g/ kg and high dose group (HD AgNPs) was i.p. injected with a dose of 4 g/ kg. Samples were taken from each group after one week, two weeks and four weeks of injection. Then blood was collected from all animals for serum analysis of kidney functions (serum creatinine, uric acid and blood urea nitrogen) at the end of each period and the kidneys were examined microscopically. The results showed impaired kidney function as revealed by increased in sera levels of creatinine, uric acid and blood urea nitrogen in rats treated with AgNPs. The study of light microscopy showed tissue changes in the kidney membranes including programmed death and focal necrosis. One of the most significant effects was changes in nuclei that appeared either enlarged or bilateral in the kidney cells. The biochemical and structure were more prominent by increased dose and prolonged duration. The study concluded that despite the benefits of silver nanoparticles, it is important to test the safety of the use of different doses to determine the safe dose, especially on vital organs such as kidneys.
. S. Kim, D.Y. Ryu. “Silver nanoparticle‐induced oxidative stress, genotoxicity and apoptosis in cultured cells and animal tissues.” Journal of Applied Toxicology, vol. 33(2), pp.78-9, 2013.
. I. Sondi, B. Salopek-Sondi. “Silver nanoparticles as antimicrobial agent: a case study on E. coli as a model for Gram-negative bacteria.” J Colloid Interface Sci, vol. 275(1), pp.177-82, 2004.
. A. Panacek, M. Kolar, R. Vecerova, R. Prucek, J. Soukupova, V. Krystof, et al. “Antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles against Candida spp." Biomaterials, vol. 30 (31), pp.6333- 40, 2009.
. R.W. Sun, R. Chen, N.P. Chung, C.M. Ho, C.L. Lin, C.M. Che. “Silver nanoparticles fabricated in Hepes buffer exhibit cytoprotective activities toward HIV-1 infected cells.” Chem Commun (Camb), vol. 40, pp.5059-5061, 2005.
. C. Graf, D.L. Vossen, A. Imhof, A. Van Blaaderen. “A general method to coat colloidal particles with silica.” Langmuir, vol. 19 (17), pp.6693-6700, 2003.
. J. Tang, T. Xi. “Status of biological evaluation on silver nanoparticles.” Journal of biomedical engineering, vol. 25, pp. 958-961, 2008.
. S. Kim, J.E. Choi, J. Choi, K.H. Chung, K. Park, J. Yi, et al. Oxidative stress-dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles in human hepatoma cells. Toxicology in vitro, vol. 23(6), pp.1076-1084, 2009.
. J. Tang, L. Xiong, S. Wang, J. Wang, L. Liu, J. Li, et al. “Distribution, translocation and accumulation of silver nanoparticles in rats.” Journal of nanoscience and nanotechnology, vol. 9(8), pp.4924-4932, 2009.
. F. Faedmaleki, F.H. Shirazi, A.A. Salarian, A.H. Ashtiani, H. Rastegar. “Toxicity Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on Mice Liver Primary Cell Culture and HepG2 Cell Line.” Ira J Pharm Res, vol. 13 (1), pp.235-242, 2014.
. A. Rinna, Z. Magdolenova, A. Hudecova, M. Kruszewski, M. Refsnes, M. Dusinska. “Effect of silver nanoparticles on mitogen-activated protein kinases activation: role of reactive oxygen species and implication in DNA damage.” Mutagenesis, vol. 30 (1), pp.59-66, 2015.
. J.S. Teodoro, A.M. Simoes, F.V. Duarte, A.P. Rolo, R.C. Murdoch, S.M. Hussain, et al. “Assessment of the toxicity of silver nanoparticles in vitro: a mitochondrial perspective.” Toxicol In Vitro, vol. 25(3), pp.664-670, 2011.
. F. Oesch, R. Landsiedel. “Genotoxicity investigations on nanomaterials.” Archives of toxicology, vol. 86(7), pp.985-994, 2012.
. Y.S. Kim, M.Y. Song, J.D. Park, K.S. Song, H.R. Ryu, Y.H. Chung, et al. “Subchronic oral toxicity of silver nanoparticles.” Particle and fibre toxicology, vol. 7, pp.20, 2010a.
. V.S. Ramkumar, A. Pugazhendhi, K. Gopalakrishnan, P. Sivagurunathan, G.D. Saratale, T.N.B. Dung, et al. “Biofabrication and characterization of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of seaweed Enteromorpha compressa and its biomedical properties.” Biotechnology reports, vol. 14: pp.1-7, 2017.
. M.A. Ansari, H.M. Khan, A.A. Khan, M.A. Alzohairy, M. Waseem, M.K. Ahmad, et al. “Biochemical, histopathological, and transmission electron microscopic ultrastructural changes in mice after exposure to silver nanoparticles.” Environmental toxicology, vol. 31(8), pp.945-956, 2016.
. K. Jung. “Tietz Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry”, 6th edition. Carl A. Burtis, Edward R. Ashwood, David E. Bruns, editors. St Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier, pp.976, 2008.
. H.A. Bulger, H.E. Johns. “The determination of plasma uric acid.” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 140, pp.427-440, 1941.
. H.M. Kalckar, M. Shafran, M. “Differential spectrophotometry of purine compounds by means of specific enzymes. 3. Studies of the enzymes of purine metabolism.” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 167, pp.461-475, 1947.
. R.A.B. Drury, E.A. Wallington. “Preparation and fixation of tissues.” Carleton's histological technique, vol. 5, pp.41-54, 1980.
. C.L. Keat, A. Aziz, A.M. Eid, N.A. Elmarzugi. “Biosynthesis of nanoparticles and silver nanoparticles.” Bioresources and Bioprocessing, vol. 2, pp.47, 2015.
. B. Khodadadi, M. Bordbar, M. Nasrollahzadeh. “Achillea millefolium L. extract mediated green synthesis of waste peach kernel shell supported silver nanoparticles: Application of the nanoparticles for catalytic reduction of a variety of dyes in water.” J Colloid Interface Sci.; vol. 493, pp.85-93, 2017.
. S. Moaddab, H. Ahari, D. Shahbazzadeh, A.A. Motallebi, A.A. Anvar, J. Rahman-Nya, et al. “Toxicity study of nanosilver (nanocid?) on osteoblast cancer cell line.” International Nano Letters, vol. 1, pp.11, 2011.
. H.J. Johnston, G. Hutchison, F.M. Christensen, S. Peters, S. Hankin, V. Stone. “A review of the in vivo and in vitro toxicity of silver and gold particulates: particle attributes and biological mechanisms responsible for the observed toxicity.” Critical reviews in toxicology, vol. 40, pp. 328-346, 2010.
. S.K. Misra, A. Dybowska, D. Berhanu, S.N. Luoma, E. Valsami-Jones. “The complexity of nanoparticle dissolution and its importance in nanotoxicological studies.” Science of the total environment, vol. 438, pp.225-232, 2012.
. M.F. Anwar, D. Yadav, S. Kapoor, J. Chander, M. Samim, M. “Comparison of antibacterial activity of Ag nanoparticles synthesized from leaf extract of Parthenium hystrophorus L in aqueous media and gentamicin sulphate: in-vitro.” Drug development and industrial pharmacy, vol. 41, pp.43-50, 2015.
. J. Sastry, P. Bakas, H. Kim, L. Wang, A. Marinopoulos. “Evaluation of cascaded H-bridge inverter for utility-scale photovoltaic systems.” Renewable Energy, vol. 69, pp.208-218, 2014.
. O. Dayani, A. Ghiasi, R. Tahmasbi. “Chemical Composition, Physical Characteristics, Digestibility and Degradability of Grape Pomace Processed with Neurospora sitophila.” Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, vol. 4(4), pp.733-739, 2014.
. M.S. Heydrnejad, R.J. Samani. “Sex Differential Influence of Acute Orally-administered Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) on Some Biochemical Parameters in Kidney of Mice Mus musculus.” J Nanomed Nanotechnol, vol. 7(3), pp.1-5, 2016.
. Q. Jarrar, A. Battah, F. Obeidat, K. Battah. “Biochemical changes induced by the toxicity of variable sizes of silver nanoparticles.” British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 4(24), pp.2670-2678, 2014.
. N. Abdel-Raouf, N.M. Al-Enazi, I.B.M. Ibraheem, R.M. Alharbi, M.M. Alkhulaifi. “Bactericidal efficacy of Ag and Au nanoparticles synthesized by the marine alga Laurencia catarinensis.” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research & Allied Sciences, vol. 6(2), pp.213-226, 2017.
. E.J. Park, E. Bae, J. Yi, Y. Kim, K. Choi, S.H. Lee, et al. “Repeated-dose toxicity and inflammatory responses in mice by oral administration of silver nanoparticles.” Environmental toxicology and pharmacology, vol. 30, pp.162-168, 2010.
. F. Li, M.D. Weir, J. Chen, H.H. Xu, H.H. “Comparison of quaternary ammonium-containing with nano-silver-containing adhesive in antibacterial properties and cytotoxicity.” Dental Materials, vol. 29, pp.450-461, 2013.
. K. Park, E.J. Park, I.K. Chun, K. Choi, S.H. Lee, J. Yoon, B.C. Lee, et al. “Bioavailability and toxicokinetics of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles in rats.” Archives of pharmacal research, vol. 34, pp.153-158, 2011.
. Takenaka, S., Karg, E., Roth, C., Schulz, H., Ziesenis, A., Heinzmann, U., Schramel, P. and Heyder, J., 2001. Pulmonary and systemic distribution of inhaled ultrafine silver particles in rats. Environmental health perspectives, vol. 109, pp.547. 2001.
. H.S. Sharma, S. Hussain, J. Schlager, S.F. Ali, A. Sharma. “Influence of nanoparticles on blood–brain barrier permeability and brain edema formation in rats.” Acta Neocortex Suppl, vol. 106, pp.359-364, 2010.
. D. Moffat, M. Creasey. “The distribution of ingested silver in the kidney of the rat and of the rabbit.” Cells Tissues Organs, vol. 83, pp.346-355, 1972.
. G. Danscher. “Light and electron microscopic localization of silver in biological tissue.” Histochemistry, vol. 71, pp.177-186, 1981.
. W. Day, J. Hunt, A. Mcgiven. “Silver deposition in mouse glomeruli.” Pathology, vol. 8, pp. 201-204. 1976.
. J.P. Pani, R. Singh. “Small Size Nanosilver Multi Organ Toxicity: A Higher Dose Negative Response in In-Vivo and In-Vitro Experimental Application, Department of Anatomy.” Biomed J Sci & Tech Res, vol. 1(4), pp.1-6, 2017.
. A.M. Schrand, L.K. Braydich-Stolle, J.J. Schlager, L. Dai, S.M. Hussain. “Can silver nanoparticles be useful as potential biological labels?” Nanotechnology, vol. 19, pp. 235104, 2008.
. S. Arora, J. Jain, J. Rajwade, K. Paknikar. “Interactions of silver nanoparticles with primary mouse fibroblasts and liver cells.” Toxicology and applied pharmacology, vol. 236, pp.310-318, 2009.
. O.M.M. Sarhan, R.M. Hussein. “Effects of intraperitoneally injected silver nanoparticles on histological structures and blood parameters in the albino rat.” International journal of nanomedicine, vol. 9, pp.1505, 2014.
. Y.J. Kim, S.I. Yang, J.C. Ryu. “Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nano-silver in mammalian cell lines.” Molecular & Cellular Toxicology, vol. 6, pp.119-125, 2010.
. G. Terentyuk, G. Maslyakova, L. Suleymanova, V. Borodulin, Y.S. Dudakova, N. Khlebtsov, et al. “Morphological and biochemical changes after intravenous injection of gold nanoparticles.” Photonics and Optoelectronics Meetings, International Society for Optics and Photonics, Seventh International Conference on Photonics and Imaging in Biology and Medicine; 2009, China.
. M.J. Kogan, N.G. Bastus, R. Amigo, D. Grillo-Bosch, E. Araya, A. Turiel, et al. “Nanoparticle-mediated local and remote manipulation of protein aggregation.” Nano letters, vol. 6, pp.110-115, 2006.
. M. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Bahoura, J. Adegoke, C.Small, B. Ritzo, et al. The effect of gain and absorption on surface plasmons in metal nanoparticles. Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics, vol. 86, pp. 455-460, 2007.
. J. Yousef, H. Hendi, F.S. Hakami, M.A. Awad, A.F. Alem, A.A. Hendi, et al. “Toxicity of silver nanoparticles after Injected intraperitoneally in rats,” J Am Sci, vol. 8, pp.589-593, 2012.
- There are currently no refbacks.