Ignition of Smoldering in Cotton: 3D-Heat-Transfer-Modeling

Bjarne C. Hagen


The temperature and time for onset of smoldering in cotton are estimated using a pure finite element heat-transfer model (Comsol) together with 1D- and 3D-ignition models.  A comparison of the simulated results with the experimental results shows that the temperature for onset of smoldering can be estimated to within 2-3% of the experimental results, or within 7-10 °C, using a 3D-ignition model.  The time to onset is estimated to within 5% (or 2 minutes) of the experimental result for high heat flux scenarios.  For low heat flux scenarios the time estimates are poorer and within approximate 50% of the experimental results.  For the 1D-model the results are less accurate and less systematic compared with the experimental results.  The results presented here show that simulations of onset of smoldering can be performed using 3D-heat-transfer-models.  The model used here is simple to implement and to use in for more practical engineering applications.


smoldering; ignition; simulation; 3D; modeling.

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