Ignition of Smoldering in Cotton: 3D-Heat-Transfer-Modeling

Bjarne C. Hagen

Abstract


The temperature and time for onset of smoldering in cotton are estimated using a pure finite element heat-transfer model (Comsol) together with 1D- and 3D-ignition models.  A comparison of the simulated results with the experimental results shows that the temperature for onset of smoldering can be estimated to within 2-3% of the experimental results, or within 7-10 °C, using a 3D-ignition model.  The time to onset is estimated to within 5% (or 2 minutes) of the experimental result for high heat flux scenarios.  For low heat flux scenarios the time estimates are poorer and within approximate 50% of the experimental results.  For the 1D-model the results are less accurate and less systematic compared with the experimental results.  The results presented here show that simulations of onset of smoldering can be performed using 3D-heat-transfer-models.  The model used here is simple to implement and to use in for more practical engineering applications.


Keywords


smoldering; ignition; simulation; 3D; modeling.

Full Text:

PDF

References


V Babrauskas, Ignition Handbook: Principles and Applications to Fire Safety Engineering, Fire Investigation, Risk Management and Forensic Science, Fire Science Publishers/SFPE, Issaquah, WA, 2003.

G Rein, Smoldering Combustion, in: Hurley MJ (Ed.), SFPE handbook of fire protection engineering, 5th ed., Springer, New York, 2016, pp. 581-603.

TJ Ohlemiller. Cellulosic Insulation Material. III. Effects of Heat-Flow Geometry on Smolder Initiation, Combustion Science and Technology. 26 (1981) 89-105.

Suhendra, Schmidt, Krause, Underground Coal Fire Extinction Model using Coupled Reactive

Heat and Mass Transfer Model in Porous Media, (2009).

AB Dodd, C Lautenberger, C Fernandez-Pello. Computational modeling of smolder combustion and spontaneous transition to flaming, Combustion and Flame. 159 (2012) 448-461.

H Chen, G Rein, N Liu. Numerical investigation of downward smoldering combustion in an organic soil column, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. 84 (2015) 253-261.

BC Hagen, V Frette, G Kleppe, BJ Arntzen. Effects of heat flux scenarios on smoldering in cotton, Fire Safety Journal. 61 (2013) 144-159.

PC Bowes, SE Townshend. Ignition of Combustible Dusts on Hot Surfaces, British Journal of Applied Physics. 13 (1962) 105-114.

BC Hagen, V Frette, G Kleppe, BJ Arntzen. Onset of smoldering in cotton: Effects of density, Fire Safety Journal. 46 (2011) 73-80.

Thomas, Bowes, Thermal Ignition in a Slab With One Face at a Constant High Temperature, Trans.Farad.Soc. 57 (1961) 2007.

JP Holman, Heat transfer, 7th ed., McGraw-Hill, London, 1992.

Effting, Alarcon, Güths, Novaes de Oliveira, Paschoal, Influence of porosity on thermal properties of ceramic floor tiles, (2006) 409.

SIG Technical Insulation, Kaowool Blanket.pdf - SIG Technical Insulation, 2014.

RP Tye. Heat Transmission in Cellulosic Fiber Insulation Materials, Journal of Testing and Evaluation. 2 (1974) 176.

T Hatakeyama, K Nakamura, H Hatakeyama. Studies on Heat-Capacity of Cellulose and Lignin by Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Polymer. 23 (1982) 1801-1804.

Y Çengel A., Thermodynamics: an engineering approach, 6th ed., McGraw-Hill, Boston, 2007.

E Corradini, EM Teixeira, PD Paladin, JA Agnelli, ORRF Silva, LHC Mattoso. Thermal stability and degradation kinetic study of white and colored cotton fibers by thermogravimetric analysis RID C-4755-2012, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry. 97 (2009) 415-419.

JC Jones, GC Wake. Measured Activation-Energies of Ignition of Solid Materials, Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 48 (1990) 209-216.

L Cabrales, N Abidi. On the thermal degradation of cellulose in cotton fibers, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry. 102 (2010) 485-491.

F Shafizadeh, AGW Bradbury. Smoldering Combustion of Cellulosic Materials, Journal of Building Physics. 2 (1979) 141-152.

Wanke, Krause, Energy production of cotton as a function of temperature, (2015).

JC Jones. Thermal Calculations on the Ignition of a Cotton Bale by Accidental Contact with a Hot Particle, Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 65 (1996) 176-178.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 
 
  
 

 

  


About ASRJETS | Privacy PolicyTerms & Conditions | Contact Us | DisclaimerFAQs 

ASRJETS is published by (GSSRR).