A Two-Dimensional Nitrogen Fertilization Model for Irrigated Crops in Turkey
The main aim of this scientific work was to develop a theoretical model for calculation of nitrogen (N) fertilization of crops. The model is based on the N fertilization plans which had been prepared for the requirements of the Technical Assistance Project entitled “Implementation of Nitrates Directive in Turkey”. It was compiled and tested in irrigated corn crop. This has the possibility to calculate the amount of nitrogen which is required in a wide range of mean annual rainfall. It was tested for areas which receive mean annual rainfall 500-1500 mm and nitrates content in irrigation waters was 10 mg/L. Crop requirements in water are not covered by rainfall in the growing period of crops, due to uneven annual distribution during growing period and additional water is needed by mean of irrigation. Soil texture affects strongly the required quantity of soil nutrients and irrigation water and for this reason, the following textural soil classes were used: light, moderate, heavy texture and soils with organic matter 6% and clay 30%.This model is the basis for the development of auser friendly graphic environment which was built in Python 3.5. This tool can calculate the required Nitrogen for all possible triplets(soil class, annual rainfall, nitrogen from irrigation water) required for every annual crop. The user has simply to choose the crop type, the soil class, then to type the annual rainfall and the N content of irrigation water. The model uses as inputs three variables, namely the qualitative soil class and two quantitative annual rainfall (in mm/y) and nitrates inputs from irrigation (content in mg/L) and returns as an output the required Nitrogen in kg/da (1 da=1000 m2) for the described instance. Results have indicated that the requirements of nitrogen fertilization for corn varied among soil classes although irrigation water had the same nitrates concentration. This can be attributed mainly to different potential of nitrates leaching and N mineralization.
Kersebaum K.C.2007. Modelling nitrogen dynamics in soil–crop systems with HERMES. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 77:39–52.
Baethgen, W.E. 2000. Optimizing nitrogen fertilizer use: current approaches and simulation models. In: Optimizing nitrogen fertilizer application to irrigated wheat (pp.201-214). IAEA-TECDOC-1164. Vienna, Austria.
Van Grinsven H. J. M., H. F. M. ten Berge, T. Dalgaard, B. Fraters, P. Durand, A. Hart, G. Hofman, B. H. Jacobsen, S. T. J. Lalor, J. P. Lesschen, B. Osterburg, K. G. Richards, A.K. Techen, F. Vertes, J. Webb, and W. J. Willems. 2012. Management, regulation and environmental impacts of nitrogen fertilization in northwestern Europe under the Nitrates Directive; a benchmark study. Biogeosciences, 9, 5143–5160.
Hirel, B.; Le Gouis, J.; Ney, B.; Gallais, A. 2007.The challenge of improving nitrogen use efficiency in crop plants: Towards a more central role for genetic variability and quantitative genetics within integrated approaches. J. Exp. Bot. 58, 2369-2387.
Scharf P., Newell R. Kitchen, Kenneth A.Sudduth, and J. Glenn Davis.2006. Spatially Variable Corn Yield is a Weak Predictor of Optimal Nitrogen Rate. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 70:2154–2160.
Vanotti, M.B., and L.G. Bundy. 1994a. Corn nitrogen recommendations based on yield response data. J. Prod. Agric. 7:249–256.
Karyotis Th., I. Güçdemir, S. Akgül, A., Panagopoulos, C. Karyoti, S. Demirand A. Kasaci. 2014. Nitrogen fertilization plans for the main crops of Turkey to mitigate nitrates pollution. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 3:13-24.
McNeill A. and M. Unkovich.2007. The Nitrogen Cycle in Terrestrial Ecosystems. Ecosystems, Volume: 10, pages 37-64.
David MB,Wall LG, Royer TV, Tank JL.2006.Denitriﬁcation and the nitrogen budget of a reservoir in an agricultural landscape. EcolAppl 16:2177–2190.
ECETOC 1994. Ammonia emissions to air in western Europe. Technical Report 62. European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Brussels. Model for Scotland: I. Nitrogen leaching. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(2), 191-204.
De Willigen, P. 2000. An analysis of the calculation of leaching and denitrification losses as practised in the NUTMON approach. Report 18. Wageningen, The Netherlands, Plant Research International.
] Karyotis Th., A. Panagopoulos, D. Pateras, A. Panoras, N. Danalatos, C. Angelakis and C. Kosmas.2002. The Greek Action Plan for the mitigation of nitrates in water resources of the vulnerable district of Thessaly. Journal of Mediterranean Ecology vol.3, No 2-3: 77-83.
Karyotis Th., A. Panagopoulos, J. Alexiou, D. Kalfountzos, D. Pateras, G. Argyropoulos and A. Panoras. 2006. Communications in Biometry and Crop Science, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2006, pp. 72–78.
Dunn S., A. Vinten, A. Lilly, J. DeGroote, M. Sutton and McGechan.2004. Nitrogen Risk Assessment Model for Scotland: I. Nitrogen leaching. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(2), 191-204.
FAO.2006. Fertilizer use by crop. FERTILIZER AND PLANT NUTRITION BULLETIN 17. ISSN 0259-2495, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy.
Van Rossum, G. 2003. The Python Language; Reference Manual. Network Theory Ltd., September.
Trebs I., L. L. Lara, L. M. M. Zeri, L. V. Gatti, P. Artaxo, R. Dlugi, J. Slanina, M. O. Andreae, and F. X. Meixner.2006. Dry and wet deposition of inorganic nitrogen compounds to a tropical pasture site (Rondonia, Brazil). Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 447–469.
Drury, C. F., Yang, J. Y., De Jong, R., Yang, X. M., Huffman, E. C., Kirkwood, V. and Reid, K. 2007. Residual soil nitrogen indicator for agricultural land in Canada. Can. J. Soil Sci. 87: 167–177.
Link, J., S. Graeff, W.D. Batchelor, W. Claupein, 2006a: Evaluating the economic and environmental impact of environmental compensation payment policy under uniform and variable-rate nitrogen management. Agricultural Systems 91, 135-153.
Dahnke, W.C., Johnson, G.V.1990. "Testing soils for available nitrogen", Soil Testing and Plant Analysis, 3rd Edition (Westerman, R.L., Ed.), Soil Science Society of America, Madison pp.127-139.
Vanotti M.B. and L.G. Bundy.1994. An alternative rationale for corn nitrogen fertilizer recommendations, J. Prod. Agric. 7: 243-249.
Halvorson A.D. and C.A. Reule. 1994. Nitrogen fertilizer requirements in an annual dryland cropping system. Agron. J. 86:315-318.
Schmitt M.A. and G.W. Randall.1994. Developing a soil nitrogen test for improved recommendations for corn. J. Prod. Agric. 7
- There are currently no refbacks.