Effects of Tillage Practices on Water Use Efficiency and Yield of Different Drought Tolerant Common Bean Varieties in Machakos County, Eastern Kenya
As world population increases, the need to feed this increasing population by the year 2050 is rising with marginal areas been cultivated to address these needs. This study seeks to compare effects of tillage on water use efficiencies (WUEs) and yields of drought tolerant bean varieties in Machakos County using three tillage systems: conventional tillage (CT) done with chisel mounted on oxen for ploughing while minimum tillage (MT) and no-till (NT) were done using hoes to dig directly where seeds of four varieties were planted in 4 × 3 Split-plot randomized completely block design replicated four times. Erosion was negligible due to land slope flatness while actual ET crop was derived using meteorological data from 2016 and 2017 cropping seasons. Aboveground biomass and grain yield were harvested from the inner rows after discarding the outer two rows from all size of each experimental plot and weighed for total biomass and grain yield. Data were subjected to two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Genstat 14th edition software statistical package at alpha 0.05. Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was used to separate means.
Results indicate that interaction between tillage and seasons significantly influenced biomass and grain yield WUEs with GLPX92 yielding the highest in CT, MT and ZT though insignificant under the SR drought event, but under the LR favorable season GLPX92 yield decline with NT, CT and MT. These results, suggest interactions of conservation tillage and seasons the best option for production during favorable seasons and conventional tillage during drought events.
M. A. Busari, S. S. Kukal, A. Kaur, R. Bhatt, and A. A. Dulazi, “Conservation tillage impacts on soil, crop and the environment,” Int. Soil Water Conserv. Res., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 119–129, 2015.
J. Dumanski, “Evolving concepts and opportunities in soil conservation,” Int. Soil Water Conserv. Res., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 2015.
M. Schmitz, P. Mal, and J. W. Hesse, “The Importance of Conservation Tillage as a Contribution to Sustainable Agriculture : A special Case of Soil Erosion,” Agribusiness-Forschung, pp. 1–82, 2015.
J. L. Hatfield, T. J. Sauer, and J. H. Prueger, “Managing Soils to Achieve Greater Water Use Efficiency : A Review Managing Soils to Achieve Greater Water Use Efficiency : A Review,” Agron. J., vol. 93, pp. 271–280, 2001.
M. D. Mwehia, “Water use Efficiency and Yield Response to Nitrogen Fertilizer in Common Bean ( phaseolus vulgaris l .) Under Semi-arid Environment , Kenya .,” vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 8–21, 2015.
M. J. Zarea, Biodiversity, Biofuels, Agroforestry and Conservation Agriculture, vol. 5. 2011.
B. A. Keating, P. S. Carberry, P. S. Bindraban, S. Asseng, H. Meinke, and J. Dixon, “Eco-efficient agriculture: Concepts, Challenges, And opportunities,” Crop Sci., vol. 50, no. April, p. S-109-S-119, 2010.
J. Recha, “Climate Related Risks and Opportunities for Agricultural Adaptation in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya.”
D. C. Jewell, S. R. Waddington, J. K. Ransom, and K. V Pixley, Maize Researc for Stress Environ en s, no. April. 1994.
J. R. Simpjol and J. R. O. G. Luhllfwa, “the Problem of Maintaining Soil Fertility in Eastern Kenya : a Review of Relevant Research,” no. June 1982, 1996.
Kutu, FR, “Effect of conservation agriculture management practices on maize productivity and selected soil quality indices under South Africa dryland conditions,” African J. Agric. Reseearch, vol. 7, no. 26, pp. 3839–3846, 2012.
G. N. Karuku and B. O. Mochoge, “Nitrogen Forms in Three Kenyan Soils Nitisols , Luvisols and Ferralsols,” Int. J. Innov. Educ. Res., vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 17–30, 2016.
N. C. Turner, “Agronomic options for improving rainfall-use efficiency of crops in dryland farming systems,” J. Exp. Bot., vol. 55, no. 407, pp. 2413–2425, 2004.
X. Wang, Z. Jia, L. Liang, B. Yang, R. Ding, J. Nie, and J. Wang, “Impacts of manure application on soil environment, rainfall use efficiency and crop biomass under dryland farming.,” Sci. Rep., vol. 6, no. February, p. 20994, 2016.
B. Sharma, D. Molden, and S. Cook, “Water use efficiency in agriculture: Measurement, current situation and trends.,” Manag. Water Fertil. Sustain. Intensif., pp. 39–64, 2015.
J. M. Kinama, C. J. Stigter, C. K. Ong, J. K. Ng, and F. N. Gichuki, “Evaporation from soils below sparse crops in contour hedgerow agroforestry in semi-arid Kenya,” vol. 130, pp. 149–162, 2005.
K. Kwena, F. O. Ayuke, G. N. Karuku, and A. O. Esilaba, “The curse of low soil fertility and diminishing maize yields in semi-Arid Kenya: Can pigeonpea play saviour?1,” Trop. Subtrop. Agroecosystems, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 263–278, 2017.
K. A. Shittu, D. J. Oyedele, and K. M. Babatunde, “The effects of moisture content at tillage on soil strength in maize production,” Egypt. J. Basic Appl. Sci., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 139–142, 2017.
M. Farooq, M. Hussain, A. Wahid, and K. H. M. Siddique, “Plant Responses to Drought Stress,” pp. 1–6, 2012.
M. Aslam, M. A. Maqbool, and R. Cengiz, “Drought Stress in Maize (Zea mays L.),” no. Jensen 1973, pp. 5–18, 2015.
Kinama J. M.,Stocking and M. Maingi, “Slemsa model application for land use management in semi- arid kenya,” no. 1978, 2007.
P. Taylor, J. M. Kinama, C. J. Stigter, C. K. Ong, and J. K. Ng, “Arid Land Research and Management Contour Hedgerows and Grass Strips in Erosion and Runoff Control on Sloping Land in Semi-Arid Kenya Contour Hedgerows and Grass Strips in Erosion and Runoff Control on Sloping Land in Semi-Arid Kenya,” no. April 2013, pp. 37–41, 2007.
C. Wang, R. Jiang, L. Boithias, S. Sauvage, X. Mao, Y. Han, A. Hayakawa, K. Kuramochi, and R. Hatano, “watershed with the modified SWAT model,” Agric. Water Manag., 2016.
E. Of, W. Stress, O. N. Water, and E. Of, “Effects of water stress on water,” vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 253–266, 1996.
- There are currently no refbacks.