Methods of Reasoning in Scientific Discovery

G. Nandasena, L. N. K. de Silva, K. K. W. A. S. Kumara

Abstract


In this paper, we briefly discuss the forms of arguments and the methods of reasoning in scientific experiments, namely, inductive reasoning, abductive reasoning and deductive reasoning. We find that generalization is in human nature, and it is only a conception without any perception. The short comings of the applications of deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning are analyzed using examples. It is observed that deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning methods are invalid in scientific reasoning. We discuss the vulnerability of the foundation of science that is based on the methods of inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning. We find that it is by abductive reasoning that theories are constructed to explain empirical observations. Abductive reasoning is only the reasoning method that can be applied for the observations in the empirical world. Finally, we conclude that the best and the most effective method of reasoning is the abductive reasoning for scientific experiments.


Keywords


General Statement; Statistical generalization; Inductive Generalization; Induction; Deduction and Abduction.

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