Production of Ethanol from Cassava and Yam Peels Using Acid Hydrolysis

Samson Olayemi, Adeola Ibikunle, Joy Olayemi

Abstract


Energy from fossil fuels has played a very important role in our lives, but such an important role has been clouded out due to the environment hazards caused from fossil emissions. This has led to a new dimension in energy utilization known as renewable energy fuels. To fully support this type of energy from biological mass, adequate biomass source must be harnessed. This work thus was carried out with a view of utilizing some locally available biomass wastes as an alternative source of ethanol. The production of ethanol from cassava and yam peels was examined using acid hydrolysis at two different temperatures and fermenting with two different strains of saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker′syeast and freshly isolated yeast).Fermentation was allowed for about 5 days after which ethanol was recovered by distillation (at 78 OC). Iodoform test and gas chromatography were used, just to confirm that the distillates were ethanol. Cassava peels hydrolyzed at room temperature produced higher yields of ethanol (11.30% and 8.63%). Fermentation with freshly isolated yeast produced more yield of ethanol both at room temperature (11.30%) and at 80 OC (6.15%) than those fermented with baker′s yeast. Yam peels also produced more ethanol at room temperature than at 80 OC using either of the two enzymes for fermentation (21.72% and 27.08%). Moreover, the use of baker′s yeast for fermentation produced more yield of ethanol from yam peels. For the mixtures by proportion, only the ratio of 2:1 of cassava to yam peels (C₂Y₁) produced a higher yield of ethanol at room temperature (60.52% and 13.39% at room temperature using baker′s yeast and freshly isolated enzymes respectively). The other mixtures [(C₁Y₂) and (CY) sets of samples] gave higher yields of percentage ethanol at 80 OC than at room temperature. Every other sets of samples gave higher yields at room temperature. Generally, most of the samples hydrolyzed better at room temperature except for C₂Y₁ and CY sets of samples. The highest yield of ethanol was produced by (C₂Y₁) when hydrolyzed at room temperature using baker′s yeast (60.52%).


Keywords


Ethanol yield; Hydrolysis; Energy; Temperature; Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Full Text:

PDF

References


. M.M. Chang; J.Y. Chou; and G.T. Tsao. “Structure, pretreatment and hydrolysis of cellulose”. Adv. Biochem. Engin. 1981, 16: 40-5.

. E.B. Cowling. “Physical and chemical constraints in the hydrolysis of cellulose and lignocellulose’s material”. Biotech. Bioengin. Symp. Series 5:163-81. 1976.

. V.A. Oyenuga. Nigeria Foods and Feeding Stuffs, 2nd ed. Revised. Univ. Press, Ibadan, Nigeria, 1959, pp. 56-7, 71.

. U.G. Akpan. “Acid demethylation of agricultural waste (citrus peel)”. Paper presented at the 8th Annual Sci. Conf. Nigeria Society for Biol. Conserv., University of Uyo, Uyo Nigeria, 1999.

. A.O. Amosun. “Gasification of biomass for methanol production”. An unpublished B.Eng. Chemical Engineering Dept., Federal Univ. of Technology, Minna, Nigeria. 2000.

. G.B. Gordon; and S. Michael. Food Science. Pergamon Int. Popular Sci. Series, Oxford, UK. 1979, pp. 21, 37-97.

. J.F. Harris. Wood as a Chemical Raw Material. The Chemistry of Wood. Interscience Publ., New York, NY, USA. 1963.

. Othman, Kirk. Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Vol. 2, John Wiley, New York, NY, USA. 1981, pp. 393-6.

. S.K. Layokun. “Kinetics of acid hydrolysis of cellulose from sawdust,” Proc. 11th Annual Conf. Nigeria Soc. Chem. Engin., 1981, pp. 63-8.

. Y. Lin; and S. Tanaka. “Ethanol fermentation from biomass resources: current state and prospects”. Applied Microbiology Biotechnology, 69(6): 627-642. (2006).

. Z. Adeeb. “Glycerol delignification of poplar wood chips in aqueous medium”. Energy Education Science and Technology 13/2, 2004, pp. 81-88.

. O. D. Adeniyi; A. S. Kovo; A. S. Abdulkareem; and C. Chukwudozie. “Ethanol Production from Cassava as A Substitute for Gasoline”. J. Dispersion Sci. Technol 28:501-504. (2007),

. U. G. Akpan; “Acid Demethylation of Agricultural Waste (Citrus Peel)”. A. M. S. E 46(6): (2003), pp. 33-42.

. U. G. Akpan; A. S. Kovo. M. Abdullahi; and U. J. J. Ijah, “Production of Ethanol from Maize Cobs and Groundnut Shell”. AU J. T. 9(2): 106-110. (2005).

. APA: Ethanol fuel | Fuel Flow Meter. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.fuelflowmeter.net/ethanol-fuel/ Chicago: Ethanol fuel | Fuel Flow Meter, http://www.fuelflowmeter.net/ethanol-fuel/ (accessed November 12, 2011).

. C. Arato; E.K. Pye; and G. Gjennestad. “The lignol approach to biorefining of woody biomass to produce ethanol and chemicals”. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 123/1-3, (2005), pp. 871- 882.

. S.K. Black; B.R. Hames; and M.D. Myers. “Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars”: Anon., patent number US 5730837, (1994).

. B.L. Browning. The Chemistry of Wood, Interscience, New York, 1967, pp 703.

. C.A. Cardona; and O.J. Sanchez. “Fuel ethanol production: Process design trends and integration opportunities”. Bioresource Technology 98(12): 2007, pp.2415-2457.

. J.O.B. Carioca; P.V. Pannirselvam; E.A. Horta; and H.L. Arora. “Lignocellulosic biomass fractionation: I - solvent extraction in a novel reactor”. Biotechnology Letters 7/3, 1985, pp. 213-216.

. F. Carrillo; M.J. Lis, et al. “Effect of alkali pretreatment on cellulase hydrolysis of wheat straw: Kinetic study”. Process Biochemistry 40(10): 3360-3364. (2005).

. F. Carvalheiro; L.C. Duarte, et al. “Hemicellulose biorefineries: A review on biomass pre- treatments”. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 67(11): 849-864. (2008).

. Y. Chen; R.R. Sharma-Shivappa, et al. “Potential of agricultural residues and hay for bioethanol production”. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 142(3): 276-290. (2007).

. C. Crofcheck; M.D. Montross; A. Berkovich; and R. Andrews. “The effect of temperature on the mild solvent extraction of white and red oak”. Biomass and Bioenergy 28/6, pp. 572-578. (2005).

. T. Eggeman; and R.T. Elander. “Process and economic analysis of pretreatment technologies”. Bioresource Technology 96(18 SPEC. ISS.): 2019-2025. (2005).

. M.P. Garcia-Aparicio; I. Ballesteros, et al. “Effect of inhibitors released during steam-explosion pretreatment of barley straw on enzymatic hydrolysis”. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 129(1-3): 278-288. (2006).

. T.K. Ghose; P.V. Pannir Selvam, et al. “Catalytic solvent delignification of agricultural residues: Organic catalysts”. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25(11): 2577-2590. (1983).

. R.D. Girard; A.R.P. van Heiningen. “Delignification rate of white birch chips during ethanol- water cooking in a stirred batch reactor with rapid liquor displacement”: Journal of pulp and paper science 26/1, pp. 1-7. (2003).

. A.R. Gonçalves; D.S. Ruzene. “Influence of pressure in ethanol/water pulping of sugarcane bagasse”. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 105-108, pp. 195-204. (2003).

. G. González; J. López-Santín, et al. “Dilute acid hydrolysis of wheat straw hemicellulose at moderate temperature: A simplified kinetic model”. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 28(2): 288-293. (1986).

. J.W. Groenestijn; J.H.O. van; R.R. Hazewinkel; Bakker. “Pre-treatment of lignocellulose with biological acid recycling (the Biosulfurol process)”. International Sugar Journal 110 (1319). - p. 689 - 692. (2008).

. E.E. Harris; G.J. Beglinger; Hajny and Sherrard EC “Hydrolysis of Wood: Treatment with Sulfuric Acid in a stationary digester” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 37(1): 12- 23. (1945).

. I. Hasegawa; K. Tabata; O. Okuma; and K. Mae. “New pretreatment methods combining a hot water treatment and water/acetone extraction for thermo-chemical conversion of biomass”. Energy & Fuels 18/3, pp. 755-760. (2004).

. A.T.W.M. Hendriks; and G. Zeeman. “Pretreatments to enhance the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass”. Bioresource Technology 100(1): 10-18. (2008).

. Jesper Norgard, “Ethanol Production from Biomass”, Optimization of Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation with respect to stirring and heating, 2005, pp 1-5.

. T.H. Kim; and Y.Y. Lee. “Pretreatment of corn stover by soaking in aqueous ammonia”. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - Part A Enzyme Engineering and Biotechnology 124(1-3): 1119-1131. (2005).

. E. Kiran; and H. Balkan. “High-pressure extraction and delignifcation of red spruce with binary and ternary mixtures of acetic acid, water, and supercritical carbon dioxide”. Journal of Su- percritical Fluids 7, 75. (1994).

. H.B. Klinke; A.B. Thomsen, et al. “Inhibition of ethanol-producing yeast and bacteria by degradation products produced during pre-treatment of biomass”. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 66(1): 10-26. (2004).

. H.B. Klinke; B.K. Ahring, et al. “Characterization of degradation products from alkaline wet oxidation of wheat straw”. Bioresource Technology 82(1): 15-26. (2002).

. O.R. Inderwildi. Energy and Environmental Science 2, 2008, pp. 343.

. P. Obileku. “Production of cellulosic ethanol from wood sawdust” Unpublished Bachelor Project work. Department of Agricultural & Bioresources Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. 2007.

. X. Pan; N. Gilkes; J.F. Kadla; K. Pye; S. Saka; D. Gregg; K. Ehara; D. Xie; D. Lam; and J.N. Saddler. “Bioconversion of hybrid poplar to ethanol and co-products using an organosolv fractionation process: optimization of process yields”. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 94/5, pp. 851-861. (2006).


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 
 
  
 

 

  


About ASRJETS | Privacy PolicyTerms & Conditions | Contact Us | DisclaimerFAQs 

ASRJETS is published by (GSSRR).