Enhancing Waterborne Diseases in Pakistan & Their Possible Control

Anam Javed, Ayesha Kabeer

Abstract


In Waterborne disease, water is a carrier of either infectious entities or of chemicals. Recently reported Pakistani data highlights that conditions of both drinking water supply and sanitation are still not satisfactory in urban and rural areas. Aquatic reservoirs of Pakistan are also contaminated so indirectly cause broad spectrum waterborne ailments e.g. gastroenteritis, diarrhea, vomiting, renal and dermal ailments. Leading causes of water linked disorders are unsafe domestic water usage, unprotected water sources, unawareness of sanitation practice, poor management of water treatment, monsoon season and flooding and global warming. It is need of the time that the government of Pakistan should organize new waste water treatment plants and repair of existing ones to provide safer water for consumption. Although currently, reverse osmosis membranes are in use but they are costly and also not fully effective and it is better to plan their replacement by carbon nanotubes. Moreover, waterborne diseases can be minimized in three ways in Pakistan and in other developing countries by improving quality and quantity of drinking water and by safer sewage disposal along with provision of low cost and proper sanitation facilities. 


Keywords


Carbon nanotubes; reverse osmosis; sanitation; sewage disposal; water borne disease.

Full Text:

PDF

References


. W. Grabow. (1996). "Waterborne diseases: Update on water quality assessment and control". Water S. A. 22(2), p. 193-202.

. H. Leclerc, L. Schwartzbrod, and E. Dei-Cas. (2002). "Microbial agents associated with waterborne diseases". Critical reviews in microbiology. 28(4), p. 371-409.

. A. Fenwick. (2006). "Waterborne infectious diseases—could they be consigned to history?". Science. 313(5790), p. 1077-1081.

. M.A. Montgomery and M. Elimelech, Water and sanitation in developing countries: including health in the equation, 2007, ACS Publications.

. S. Jabeen, Q. Mahmood, S. Tariq, B. Nawab, and N. Elahi. (2011). "Health impact caused by poor water and sanitation in district Abbottabad". Journal of Ayub Medical College Abbottabad. 23(1), p. 47-50.

. P. Commission. (2001). "Ten Year Perspective Development Plan 2001-11". Planning Commission Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.

. M. Daud, M. Nafees, S. Ali, M. Rizwan, R.A. Bajwa, M.B. Shakoor et al. (2017). "Drinking water quality status and contamination in Pakistan". BioMed research international. 2017.

. A. Akbar, U. Sitara, S.A. Khan, N. Muhammad, M.I. Khan, Y.H. Khan et al. (2013). "Drinking water quality and risk of waterborne diseases in the rural mountainous area of Azad Kashmir Pakistan". International Journal of Biosciences. 3(12), p. 245-251.

. M. Memon, M.S. Soomro, M.S. Akhtar, and K.S. Memon. (2011). "Drinking water quality assessment in Southern Sindh (Pakistan)". Environmental monitoring and assessment. 177(1-4), p. 39-50.

. S. Khan, M. Shahnaz, N. Jehan, S. Rehman, M.T. Shah, and I. Din. (2013). "Drinking water quality and human health risk in Charsadda district, Pakistan". Journal of cleaner production. 60, p. 93-101.

. M. Baqir, Z.A. Sobani, A. Bhamani, N.S. Bham, S. Abid, J. Farook et al. (2012). "Infectious diseases in the aftermath of monsoon flooding in Pakistan". Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine. 2(1), p. 76-79.

. S. Haydar, M. Arshad, and J. Aziz. (2016). "Evaluation of drinking water quality in urban areas of Pakistan: A case study of Southern Lahore". Pakistan Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences.

. R. Ullah, R.N. Malik, and A. Qadir. (2009). "Assessment of groundwater contamination in an industrial city, Sialkot, Pakistan". African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 3(12).

. M.A. Rab, M.K. Bile, M.M. Mubarik, H. Asghar, Z. Sami, S. Siddiqi et al. (1997). "Water-borne hepatitis E virus epidemic in Islamabad, Pakistan: a common source outbreak traced to the malfunction of a modern water treatment plant". The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene. 57(2), p. 151-157.

. A. Azizullah, M.N.K. Khattak, P. Richter, and D.-P. Häder. (2011). "Water pollution in Pakistan and its impact on public health—a review". Environment International. 37(2), p. 479-497.

. D. Caussy, A field guide: detection, management and surveillance of arsenicosis in South-East Asia Region, 2006, WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia.

. C.O. Abernathy, D.J. Thomas, and R.L. Calderon. (2003). "Health effects and risk assessment of arsenic". The Journal of nutrition. 133(5), p. 1536S-1538S.

. O. Barbier, G. Jacquillet, M. Tauc, M. Cougnon, and P. Poujeol. (2005). "Effect of heavy metals on, and handling by, the kidney". Nephron Physiology. 99(4), p. p105-p110.

. D.A. Khan, M.M. Bhatti, F.A. Khan, S.T. Naqvi, and A. Karam. (2008). "Adverse effects of pesticides residues on biochemical markers in Pakistani tobacco farmers". International journal of clinical and experimental medicine. 1(3), p. 274.

. E.C. Lee, M.R. Kelly Jr, B.M. Ochocki, S.M. Akinwumi, K.E. Hamre, J.H. Tien et al. (2017). "Model distinguishability and inference robustness in mechanisms of cholera transmission and loss of immunity". Journal of theoretical biology. 420, p. 68-81.

. N.J. Ashbolt. (2004). "Microbial contamination of drinking water and disease outcomes in developing regions". Toxicology. 198(1-3), p. 229-238.

. A.S. Saima, R. Ferhat Abbas, M. Rizwan, M. Yousaf, Y. Hassan, M. Naeem et al. (2018). "27. Isolation & identification of Shigella species from food and water samples of Quetta, Pakistan". Pure and Applied Biology (PAB). 7(1), p. 227-235.

. P. Hunter. (2003). "Climate change and waterborne and vector‐borne disease". Journal of applied microbiology. 94(s1), p. 37-46.

. K.U. Haq, N.A. Gul, H.M. Hammad, Y. Bibi, A. Bibi, and J. Mohsan. (2015). "Prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and Hymenolepis nana in Afghan refugee population of Mianwali district, Pakistan". African health sciences. 15(2), p. 394-400.

. B. Crowley, C. Path, C. Moloney, and C. Keane. (1996). "Cyclospora species--a cause of diarrhoea among Irish travellers to Asia". Irish medical journal. 89(3), p. 110-112.

. R. Goodgame. (2003). "Emerging causes of traveler’s diarrhea: Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Isospora, and Microsporidia". Current Infectious Disease Reports. 5(1), p. 66-73.

. P. Karanis, C. Kourenti, and H. Smith. (2007). "Waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites: a worldwide review of outbreaks and lessons learnt". Journal of water and health. 5(1), p. 1-38.

. M. Motoshita, N. Itsubo, and A. Inaba. (2011). "Development of impact factors on damage to health by infectious diseases caused by domestic water scarcity". The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment. 16(1), p. 65-73.

. P. Payment, L. Richardson, J. Siemiatycki, R. Dewar, M. Edwardes, and E. Franco. (1991). "A randomized trial to evaluate the risk of gastrointestinal disease due to consumption of drinking water meeting current microbiological standards". American journal of public health. 81(6), p. 703-708.

. M.A. Rahman and H. Hasegawa. (2011). "High levels of inorganic arsenic in rice in areas where arsenic-contaminated water is used for irrigation and cooking". Science of the Total Environment. 409(22), p. 4645-4655.

. M.M. Hasan and N. Gerber. (2016). "The impacts of piped water on water quality, sanitation, hygiene and health in rural households of north-western Bangladesh-a quasi-experimental analysis".

. D. Nanan, F. White, I. Azam, H. Afsar, and S. Hozhabri. (2003). "Evaluation of a water, sanitation, and hygiene education intervention on diarrhoea in northern Pakistan". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 81, p. 160-165.

. P.R. Epstein. (2000). "Is global warming harmful to health?". Scientific American. 283(2), p. 50-57.

. L. Malaeb and G.M. Ayoub. (2011). "Reverse osmosis technology for water treatment: state of the art review". Desalination. 267(1), p. 1-8.

. R. Das, M.E. Ali, S.B.A. Hamid, S. Ramakrishna, and Z.Z. Chowdhury. (2014). "Carbon nanotube membranes for water purification: a bright future in water desalination". Desalination. 336, p. 97-109.

. S.M. Dizaj, A. Mennati, S. Jafari, K. Khezri, and K. Adibkia. (2015). "Antimicrobial activity of carbon-based nanoparticles". Advanced pharmaceutical bulletin. 5(1), p. 19.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 
 
  
 

 

  


About ASRJETS | Privacy PolicyTerms & Conditions | Contact Us | DisclaimerFAQs 

ASRJETS is published by (GSSRR).