A Comparison of the Effects of Conventional and Namibia Specific Conservation Tillage Methods Used in Ogongo, Namibia on Root Development and Yield of Pearl Millet. Volume 1

Bertha Mudamburi, Adedayo Akinade Ogunmokun, Barbara Kachigunda

Abstract


Studies were conducted at the Ogongo Campus of University of Namibia between 2011 and 2012 to compare the differences between two conventional tillage (CV) treatments (i.e. tractor - drawn disc harrow (TDH) and animal - drawn mouldboard plough (AMP) and two NSCT treatments (tractor - drawn ripper furrower (TRF) and animal - drawn ripper furrowers (ARF) used by farmers in the Northern Communal Areas (NCA) of Namibia. This paper is the first volume of a series of papers to report on the comparisons of the two technologies on field performances of tillage methods and their effects on moisture, compaction, roots and yield. For this paper, the parameters evaluated were root length and yield. The research design was a split plot design with tillage as main plot treatment whilst mulch was the sub plot treatment. Yields were not significantly influenced by tillage (p = 0.410 in 2011 and 0.078 in 2012) but root length were significantly influenced by tillage in the second year (p<0.005). There were no significant differences in mulched plots vs unmulched plots among the tillage methods. Both NSCT methods (TRF with mulch and ARF with mulch) achieved longer root lengths than CV methods (TDH and AMP) by 24.5% and 8.5% respectively. Tractor ripper furrower (TRF) achieved the longest mean roots and yields in 2012.  The NSCT methods (TRF and ARF) achieved higher yields than CV methods (TDH and AMP) by 10.1% and 11% respectively. The results also suggests that farmers’ yields can be increased from an average of 400 kg ha-1 through better management that includes use of CT implements, manure, fertilizer and mulch.


Keywords


conservation tillage; conventional tillage; root development; yields.

Full Text:

PDF

References


. AGRI Views, Newsletter Edition 1. Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry. http://www.mawf.gov.na/Documents/AgriViews_Newsletter_new.pdf, 2010. [1st May 2013]

. P. Shifeta, “No such thing as a free lunch – Invest in healthy soils” Statement by Minister of Environment and Tourism, Hon. Pohamba Shifeta On behalf of His Excellency, President of the Republic of Namibia, Dr. Hage Geingob. On the occasion of the world day to combat desertification. Global observance event. Wednesday 17th June 2015 Conference Center, Expo Milano, Italy, 2015.

. NSA, “Namibia Census of Agriculture 2013/2014” Communal Sector Report, November, 2015.

. R. Davis and P. Lenhardt, “Namibia-specific Conservation Tillage On-farm Trials: 2005.2009”. Paper presented at Agrison Conference 2009 at Oshakati Country Club, Namibia, 2009.

. Mahangu and Sorghum Task Team (MSTT), “Position paper on Land Preparation prepared for Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry”. Windhoek. Namibian Agronomic Board, 2009.

. FAO, “Namibia Country Program. Conservation Agriculture Capacity Building and Expansion Project in the SADC Region” (CAESAR), 2009.

. F. von Hase, “Facilitating Conservation Agriculture in Namibia through Understanding Farmers Understanding Farmers’ Planned Behaviour and Decision Making”. Master's Thesis in Agricultural Science 30 HEC Advanced level, A2E Agro ecology – Master's programme. Självständigt arbete vid LTJ.fakulteten, SLU Alnarp, 2013.

. Contill (Conservation Tillage Project), “Reports. Windhoek, Namibia: Conservation Tillage Project and Namibia Agronomic Board”, 2009.

. NAB, “Conservation Tillage Project (CONTILL (LIMA NAWA) reports” Windhoek, Namibia: Namibian Agronomic Board, 2009.

. FAO, “Conservation Agriculture”. http://www.fao.org/ag/ca, 2014. [30 March 2014].

. R. Derpsch, A.J Franzluebbers, S.W. Duiker, D.C. Reicosky and K. Koeller. “Why do we need to standardize no-tillage research?” Letter to the Editor. Soil & Tillage Research 137, 16–22, 2014.

. D. Reicosky, “Conservation tillage is not conservation agriculture”. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. Vol 70.NO 5. doi:10.2489/jswc.70.5.103A, 2015. Openly accessible at http://www.jswconline.org/. [1st October 2015].

. B.J. Atwell, “Response of roots mechanical impedance”. Environ. Exp. Bot. 33, 27–40, 1993.

. J.M. Reichert, V.R. da Silva and D.J. Reinert, “Soil moisture, penetration resistance, and least limiting water range for three soil management systems and black beans yield”. ISCO 2004. 13th International Soil Conservation Organisation Conference – Brisbane, July 2004. Conserving Soil and Water for Society: Sharing Solutions, Paper No. 721 page 1, 2004.

. H.B. So, A. Grabski and P. Desborough, “The Impact of 14 Years of Conventional and No-Till Cultivation on the Physical Properties and Crop Yields of a Loam Soil at Grafton NSW”, Australia. Soil and Tillage Research 104, 180–184, 2009.

. NCBA, “Conservation Agriculture Program for Northern Namibia to Help Mitigate Drought Disasters”. Program Description. Washington, National Cooperative Business Association's CLUSA International Program, 2012.

. C.J. Baker, K.E. Saxton and W.R. Ritchie, No-tillage seeding: science and practice 2nd edn. Oxford, UK: CAB International, 2002.

. ACT, Newsletter, 21 November, 2003. Harare: University of Zimbabwe and the African Conservation Tillage Network, 2005.

. ASABE, “EP291.3 FEB2005 Standards: Terminology and Definitions for Soil Tillage and Soil-Tool Relationships”, 51st ed. ASABE, St. Joseph, MI. 2005.

. J. Rockstrom, P. Kaumbutho, P. Mwalley and M. Temesgen, “Conservation Farming among small-holder farmers in E. Africa: Adapting and adopting innovative land management options. Conservation agriculture, a worldwide challenge”. In: Proceedings of the First World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, vol. 1: Keynote Contributions, Madrid, Spain, October 1–5, 363–374, 2001.

. D. Hunt, Farm Power and Machinery Management. Tenth edition. 2001. Iowa State University Press, 2001.

. FAO & UNIDO, “Agricultural mechanisation in Africa … Time for action: planning investment for enhanced agricultural productivity”. Report of an expert group meeting jointly held by FAO and UNIDO in Vienna on 29–30 November 2007. Rome, FAO. 26 pp, 2008.

. E. Scopel, F.Tardieu, G.O. Ema, and M. Sebillotte, “Effects of conservation tillage on water supply and rain fed maize production in semi-arid zones of West-Central Mexico”. NRG paper 01.01. Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT, 32-47, 2001.

. M. Diaz-Zorita, G. A. Duarte and J. H. Grove, “A Review of No-till Systems and Soil Management for Sustainable Crop Production in the Sub humid and Semi-arid Pampas of Argentina”. Soil Till. Res. 65, 1-25, 2002.

. J. Rockstrom, “Potential of rainwater harvesting to reduce pressure on freshwater resources”. Paper Prepared for the Dialogue on Water for Food and Environment, International Water Conference, Hanoi, Vietnam, 2002.

. S. Haggblade and G. Tembo, “Early Evidence on Conservation Farming in Zambia”. Paper presented at the Conference: Reconciling Rural Poverty and Resource Conservation: Identifying Relationships and Remedies held at Cornell University, May 2.3, 2003. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University, 2003.

. T. D. Dilallessa, “Effect of tillage system, residue management and nitrogen fertilization on maize production in Western Ethiopia”. Unpublished PhD. University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa, 2006.

. P. De Vita, E. Di Paolo, G. Fecondo, N. Di. Fonzo and M. Pisante, “No-tillage and Conventional tillage effects on durum wheat yield, grain quality and soil moisture content in southern Italy”. Soil and Tillage Research, 92, 69-78, 2007.

. W. Mupangwa, S. Twomlow and S. Walker, “Conservation Tillage for Soil Water Management in the Semi-Arid Southern Zimbabwe”. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of the Earth.33 in press, 2008.

. M. Rashidi and S. Abbassi, “Effect of Different Tillage Methods on Root Yield, Yield Components and Quality of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris)”. Libyan Agriculture Research Center Journal International 2 (2), 51-56, 2011.

. K. Mazvimavi, “Socio-Economic Analysis of Conservation Agriculture in Southern Africa”. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO). © FAO 2011 Regional Emergency Office for Southern Africa (REOSA). Network Paper 02 January 2011. ISBN 978.92.5.106761.1. ISSN 2220.5144, 2011.

. C.K. Cavalaris and T.A. Gemtos, “Evaluation of four conservation tillage methods in the Sugar Beet Crop”. Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR Journal of Scientific Research and Development IV. Manuscript LW 01 008 6, 1- 24, 2002.

. L. Rusinamhodzi, M. Corbeels, M.T. Van Wijk, M.C. Rufino, J. Nyamangara and K.E. Giller, “A meta‐analysis of long term effects of conservation agriculture on maize grain yield under rain-fed conditions”. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 31, 657‐ 673, 2011.

. R.F Dam, B.B Mehdi, M.S.E. Burgess, C.A. Madramootoo, G.R. Mehuys and I.R. Callum, “Soil bulk density and crop yield under eleven consecutive years of corn with different tillage and residue practices in a sandy loam soil in central Canada”. Soil and Tillage Research 84, 41-53, 2005.

. P. Kaumbutho and J. Kienzle, (Eds.) “Conservation agriculture as practised in Kenya: two case studies”. African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT), Centre de Coopération Internationale de Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Nairobi, Paris, Rome, 2007.

. I. Małecka, A. Blecharczyk, Z. Sawinska and T. Dobrzeniecki, “The effect of various long-term tillage systems on soil properties and spring barley yield”. Turk J Argic 36, 217-226. doi:10.3906/tar.1104.20, 2012.

. M. Rashidi, M. Gholami and S. Abbassi, “Effect of different tillage methods on yield and yield components of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum)”. ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science ©2006.2010 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). Vol. 5, No. 2, 26-30, 2010.

. M. Petersen, P. Ayers and D. Westfall, “Managing Soil Compaction” CSU Cooperative Extension Agriculture No: 0519, 2004.

. L. G Wells, T. S. Stombaugh and S. A. Sheraer, “Crop yield response to precision deep tillage”. Trans. ASAE 48 (3), 895-901, 2005.

. R. L. Raper, “In-row sub-soiling south eastern soils to reduce compaction and improve crop yield”. Southern Conservation Systems Conference, Amarillo TX, June 26.28, 2006.

. J. Mendelsohn, S. El Obeid and C. Roberts, A profile of North Central Namibia. Gamsberg Macmillan. Windhoek, 2000. pp 1-79.

. U. Kuvare, T. Maharero and G. Kamupingene, “Research on Farming Systems Change to Enable Adaptation to Climate Change”. Undertaken for the Ministry of Environment and Tourism and the United Nations Development Program Namibia, in preparation of Namibia’s Second National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 2008.

. W. Bohm, “Methods of Studying Root Systems”. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979.

. J.B., Fehrenbacher and J.D. Alexander. “A method for studying corn root distribution using soil-core sampling machine and a shaker-type washer. Agron. J. 47, 468-472, 1955.

. J. Nyamangara, L.F. Bergstrorn, M.I. Piha and K.E. Giller, “Fertilizer use efficiency and nitrate leaching in a tropical sandy soil. Journal of Environmental Quality 32, 599-606, 2003.

. A.M. Borghei, J. Taghenejad, S. Minaei, M. Karimi and M. Ghasemi Varnamkhasti, “Effect of sub soiling on soil bulk density, penetration resistance and cotton yield in northwest of Iran”. International Journal of Agriculture & Biology.10, 120-123, 2008.

. L. Rusinamhodzi, “NUANCES and NUISANCES: Crop production intensification options for smallholder farming systems of southern Africa”. PhD Thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, NL. ISBN: 978.94.6173.573.7, 2013.

. D. Uno, “Famer's Selection of Local and Improved Pear Millet Varieties in Ovamboland, Northern Namibia. African Study Monographs”, 30,107.117. Supplementary issue (2005), 30: pp 107-117. Kyoto University. Available at http://hdl.handle.net/2433/68457. African Study Monographs, Suppl.30, 107-117, March, 2005.

. P. Vigne and Associates, “An investigation of Possible Future MAWRD Interventions to Support Agronomic Mechanisation (Tractors) in the Communal Areas”. Phase 2 Regional Situation Review. Presented to the Namibian Agronomic Board 14 May, 2004.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.

Comments on this article

View all comments


 
 
  
 

 

  


About ASRJETS | Privacy PolicyTerms & Conditions | Contact Us | DisclaimerFAQs 

ASRJETS is published by (GSSRR).