Application of DNA Barcoding to Authentic Panax Vietnamensis
Panax L. genus consists of 11 species and sub- species. It distribute in North America and in eastern Asia (mostly northeast China, Korea, Bhutan, eastern Siberia), typically in cooler climates. In Vietnam, up to now, currently five species of the genus Panax and one sub-species have been identified including Panax bipinnatifidus Seem., P. stipuleanatus Feng Tsai et, P. vietnamensis Ha et Grushv., P. pseudoginseng Wall., P. ginseng Meyer. and Panax vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus. Panax vietnamensis is endemic species in Vietnam that only distribute around Ngoc Linh mountain with the altitude from 1500m to 2400m, in limited geograpgical coordinates from 14055’ to 15007’ north latitude and from 107051’ to 108005’ east longitude. This species is unique Panax species that distributes to 150 north latitude and it is considered as the most valuable medicinal plants in Vietnam. But Panax vietnamensis and Panax vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus share many similar characteristics and make people often confused. In this research, we used of DNA barcoding to authentic Panax vietnamensis. We sequenced 4 chloroplast DNA regions includes MatK, rbcL, rpoB and 1 nuclear DNA regions ITS for comparison and choose the best one for identification of the Panax species. Our result showed that ITS-rDNA is the best marker for authentic Panax species. MatK is good for identify at species level but rpoB good for identify at subspecies level. The sequence of MatK, rbcL, rpoB, rpoC, ITS of Panax vietnamensis and Panax vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus were submitted to Genebank with accessory number as KJ 418201, KJ 418206, KT 154685, KT 194325, KT154583, KT 194326, KJ 418194, KJ 418193 respectively.
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