The Archaeological Sites along the Ancient Course of Euphrates River
Many of archaeological sites within Al Hammar Marsh and surrounded area were selected to the current study. Multispectral QuickBird images(2006), characterized by high (0.6 m) spatial resolution, used to draw a detailed map for an especially prominent relict course of the Euphrates and for the archaeological sites, these maps used to describe these sites and to identify their temporary relationships with the ancient course of the Euphrates. The random distribution of archaeological sites near the ancient courses confirmed that these sites associated with river courses as a basic reason for their presence. Also, Repetition of settlements in several archaeological sites, and the synchronization of historical periods indicated to continue habitation in the south of Mesopotamian plain from the oldest period about 5000 BC until Islamic period.
F. Safar. “The archaeological investigations in the regions of large irrigation projects in Iraq” Sumer, Vol.16, part I& II, pp.3–12, 1960 (in Arabic).
F. Safar, M. A. Mustafa, and S. Lloyd. “Eridu” Al –Hurria Printing House, Baghdad, 1981, 360p.
T. Baqer. “Introduction in the history of ancient civilizations: the brief in the history of Mesopotamian civilization”, part I, Al –Hawdith printing House, Baghdad, 656 p., 1973 (in Arabic).
A. M. Rosen. “Cities of clay: The geoarchaeology of tells”, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 167p, 1986.
G. Roux. “The ancient Iraq”, translated by Hussein Alwan, Al-Hurria printing house, Baghdad, 674 p., 1984 (in Arabic).
R. Chan, M. Nikolova, and Y. Wen. “A Variation Approach for Exact Histogram Specification Scale”, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol.67, pp. 86–97, 2012.
S. T. AL-Mulla. “Geomorphology of Shatt AL-Arab valley by remote sensing techniques” ,Unpublished PhD. Thesis, College of Arts , University of Basrah, 200p, 2005(in Arabic).
H. T. Wright. “The Southern Margins of Sumer: Archaeological Survey of the Area of Eridu and Ur”, in R. McC. Adams (ed.), Heartland of Cities: Surveys of Ancient Settlement and Land Use onthe Central Floodplain of the Euphrates. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1981, pp. 295–338.
A. T. Wilson. “The Delta of the Shatt Al -Arab and proposals for dredging the Bar” , Geographical Journal, Vol. 65, No. 3, pp. 225-239, 1925.
P. Buringh. “Living conditions in lower Mesopotamian plain in ancient times”, Sumer, Vol. 119, No.1&2, pp.30-57, 1957.
J. F. Hansman. “The Mesopotamia delta in first millennium B.C.”, Geographical Journal ,Vol.144,No.1,pp.49-61, 1978.
J. AL-Sakini. “New window on the Mesopotamia history in the light of geological evidences and archaeology “, Dar AL-Shaon AL-Thakafiya, Baghdad, 1993, 93p,(in Arabic).
L. B. Leopold, and W. B. Langbein. “River meanders.”, Sci. Amer.,Vol.214, pp 60-70, 1966.
J. E. Taylor. “Notes on Abu Shahrein and Tel Al- Laham”, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 15, pp. 404-415, 1855.
G. Roux. “Recently discovered ancient sites in the Hammar lake district (southern Iraq)”, Sumer, Vol.16, pp.20-31, 1960.
F. Safar. “ Soundings at Tell Al-Laham”, Sumer, Vol. V, Issue 2, pp.154-172, 1949.
A. Sousa. “The History of Mesopotamian Civilization in Light of Agriculture Irrigation Projects, Recent Archaeological Discovers and Historical Sources”, Al-Hurria Printing House, Vol.1, 572 p., 1983 (in Arabic).
J. R. Pournelle. “Deltaic Landscapes and the Evolution of Early Mesopotamian Civilization: Marshland of Cities”, PhD. Thesis, University of California, San Diego, 2003, 314p.
Iraq DOA. “The Archaeological Sites in Iraq”, Ministry of culture, Alhakoma printing ,Baghdad, 1973, 385 p.(In Arabic).
C. Hirtz, J. R. Pournelle, J. Smith. “Revisiting the Sealands: report of preliminary ground reconnaissance in the Hammar district, DhiQar and Basra governorates, Iraq”, Iraq74, pp. 37–49, 2012.
- There are currently no refbacks.