Study on Sludge Characteristics and Nitrogen Removal Mechanism of Hybrid Partial Nitrification Anammox Reactor (HPNA)

MD. Asadur Rahoman, Chai Tianyu, Zhu Tong


Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a chemical process that involves the removal of inorganic nitrogen during the treatment of wastewater. Partial nitrogen-anammox process is the best alternative to the conventional nitrification-denitrification process in terms of cost-effectiveness. During the process, half of the ammonium is partly oxidized into nitrite. An Anammox bacterium is oxidized by ammonium to nitrogen gas with the use of an electron acceptor (nitrite) under anoxic conditions, and their growth occurs by carbon dioxide fixation. The process of partial nitritation-anammox demands no exogenous carbon source (e.g. methanol) and less oxygen as compared to the conventional nitrification-denitrification process. Another factor that lowers the operational costs is the low sludge production. Nevertheless, since there is low biomass production of anammox bacteria, the reactors that effectively retain biomass and can provide a long solids retention time are needed for the anammox process to be efficient and successful. A single reactor usage has a number of benefits to the process setup. Single–stage processes have easy reactor configuration and lower operational costs.  In this study, the hybrid anammox reactor has two types of reactors developed to be used, the fluidized and fixed beds.

The following had to undergo experimental evaluation which has vital theoretical and practical significance

  • The rapid startup of the anammox systems
  • Enrichment of anammox granular
  • The best nitrogen removal performances


Partial nitrification; anammox; hybrid reactor; sludge characteristics; nitrogen removal mechanism.

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