In-vitro Susceptibility of FMD Virus Serotype A Endemic in KPK, Pakistan
Foot and Mouth Disease virus (FMDV) serotype A is considered to be antigenic ally diverse among various geographical locations leading to diverse patterns of resistance and sensitivity. This phenomenon is posing high risks to global trade. This is the first study to quantify the effects of different physical factors (temperature, pH, UV and gamma irradiation) affecting the infectivity of FMDV serotype A.The infectivity of virus was calculated in term of tissue culture infectivity dose-50 (TCID-50) and plaque forming units (PFU). Virus in suspension (6×106 particles/ml) was treated using Cobalt-60 source in BHK-21 cell line grown in 96 well plates. The virus showed complete inactivation on 3, 5, 9 and 11 pH and 10kGy dose of gamma irradiations.
The results revealed that increase in temperature (both moist and dry heat) and UV light as well as increase in time of exposure with same dose of UV irradiations significantly decreased the infectivity of virus (p<0.05). These physical factors are a better alternate for virus inactivation than chemicals, which are toxic for the health and accumulate in the animal products. It is recommended that viral strains should be analyzed for their susceptibility to these physical methods. They could also be combined with thermal inactivation to further improve virus inactivity to obtain virus free products.
. Alexandersen S, Mowat N (2005) Foot-and-mouth disease: host range and pathogenesis. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus. Springer, pp 9-42
. Altic LC, Rowe MT, Grant IR (2007) UV light inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk as assessed by FASTPlaqueTB phage assay and culture. Applied and environmental microbiology 73:3728-3733
. Barteling S, Vreeswijk J (1991) Developments in foot-and-mouth disease vaccines. Vaccine 9:75-88
. Blackwell J, Hyde J (1976) Effect of heat on foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in the components of milk from FMDV-infected cows. Journal of Hygiene 77:77-83
. Brown C, Olander H, Meyer R (1995) Pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in swine, studied by in-situ hybridization. Journal of comparative pathology 113:51-58
. Cunliffe H, Blackwell J, Dors R, Walker J (1979) Inactivation of milkborne foot-and-mouth disease virus at ultra-high temperatures. Journal of Food Protection® 42:135-137
. Darnell ME, Taylor DR (2006) Evaluation of inactivation methods for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in noncellular blood products. Transfusion 46:1770-1777
. Gardner D, Shama G (2000) Modeling UV-induced inactivation of microorganisms on surfaces. Journal of Food Protection® 63:63-70
. Ghori MT, Muhammad K, Rabbani M (2011) Physical factors affecting in vitro replication of foot and mouth disease virus (Serotype “O”). Pak Vet J 31:313-316
. Hodges N, Moss S, Davies D (1980) THE ROLE OF PYRIMIDINE DIMERS AND NON‐DIMER DAMAGE IN THE INACTIVATION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI BY UV RADIATION. Photochemistry and photobiology 31:571-577
. Hyde J, Blackwell J, Callis J (1975) Effect of pasteurization and evaporation on foot-and-mouth disease virus in whole milk from infected cows. Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine 39:305
. Jamal SM, Ferrari G, Ahmed S, Normann P, Curry S, Belsham GJ (2011) Evolutionary analysis of serotype A foot-and-mouth disease viruses circulating in Pakistan and Afghanistan during 2002-2009. Journal of General Virology:vir. 0.035626-035620
. Kamolsiripichaiporn S, Subharat S, Udon R, Thongtha P, Nuanualsuwan S (2007) Thermal inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in suspension. Applied and environmental microbiology 73:7177-7184
. Mohapatra JK, Subramaniam S, Pandey LK, Pawar SS, De A, Das B, Sanyal A, Pattnaik B (2011) Phylogenetic structure of serotype A foot-and-mouth disease virus: global diversity and the Indian perspective. Journal of General Virology 92:873-879
. Morioka K, Fukai K, Sakamoto K, Yoshida K, Kanno T (2014) Evaluation of monoclonal antibody-based sandwich direct ELISA (MSD-ELISA) for antigen detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus using clinical samples. PloS one 9:e94143
. Nuanualsuwan S, Thongtha P, Kamolsiripichaiporn S, Subharat S (2008) UV inactivation and model of UV inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in suspension. International journal of food microbiology 127:84-90
. Organization WH (2007) The world health report 2007: a safer future: global public health security in the 21st century.
. Rabia SA, Fibach E, Kotler M, Gatt S (1990) Inactivation of vesicular stomatitis virus by photosensitization following incubation with a pyrene-fatty acid. FEBS letters 270:9-10
. Samuel A, Knowles N (2001) Foot-and-mouth disease type O viruses exhibit genetically and geographically distinct evolutionary lineages (topotypes). Journal of General Virology 82:609-621
. Sedeh FM, Khorasani A, Shafaee K, Fatolahi H, Arbabi K (2008) Preparation of FMD type A87/IRN inactivated vaccine by gamma irradiation and the immune response on guinea pig. Indian journal of microbiology 48:326-330
. Spickler AR, Roth JA (2012) Inactivation of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Milk Products.
. Tomasula P, Kozempel M, Konstance R, Gregg D, Boettcher S, Baxt B, Rodriguez L (2007) Thermal inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in milk using high-temperature, short-time pasteurization. Journal of dairy science 90:3202-3211
. Tosh C, Sanyal A, Hemadri D, Venkataramanan R (2002) Phylogenetic analysis of serotype A foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated in India between 1977 and 2000. Archives of virology 147:493-513
. Vosloo W, Knowles N, Thomson G (1992) Genetic relationships between southern African SAT-2 isolates of foot-and-mouth-disease virus. Epidemiology and infection 109:547-558
- There are currently no refbacks.